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Aristotle proposed a well known and much studied doctrine of Four causes. Seneca the Younger in the first years of the new era wrote that his quintam Plato adicit exemplar, quam ipse idean vocat (as a fifth Plato adds the paradigm which he calls "idea"(Ep.65.7) and there is no lack of suggestions where he might have picked this view (see. eg. Lowenstam, Mem. Am. Academy in Rome, Vol. 43/4 (1998/9), p.63-78). As Karamanolis noted (Plato and Aristotle in agreement, Oxf. 2006, p.273 n.92) "Later Platonists, probably drawing from Porphyry or an intermediary source, attribute to Plato six causes, three main ones (final, paradigmatic, efficient) and three auxiliary ones (synaitia: organic, formal, material)."

Are there cues that Porphyry himself still sticked to Five as the number of causes, having discarded one of the original four and added two ?

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