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In the universal silence of nature and in the calm of the senses the immortal spirit’s hidden faculty of knowledge speaks an ineffable language and gives [us] undeveloped concepts, which are indeed felt, but do not let themselves be described.

is included in his 1755 work titled

Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens

Are the ideas presented there derivative from other philosophers of that time or are they mostly an original composition of Kant that bear resemblance to some of the ideas he presents in the Critique?

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    No. This is from the pre-critical period when Kant was working within the Leibniz-Wolff framework, what he later called his "metaphysical slumbers". His critical ideas did not start to take shape until after 1766. But even before that he was quite original and not just derivative, and some isolated earlier ideas did make it into CPR, see SEP, Kant’s Philosophical Development. – Conifold Aug 27 at 4:44
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I would say definitely not, just the opposite. In the idea of "ineffable language" and concepts "which are indeed felt," this appears to show Kant in his "sentimentalist" phase, when he was influenced by Hutchinson and Shaftesbury, et al.

He made a radical turn after reading Hume, once translated into German in maybe the late 1750s, not sure. To answer Hume's skepticism he felt it necessary, indeed urgent, to find some basis for moral principles in critical reasoning rather than authority or any theory of "ineffable" moral sentiments.

This arrival at his categorical imperative by means of critical reason, while also compatible with empiricism, is in many ways the centerpiece of CPR. So, from all appearances this quote seems plucked from his "dogmatic slumber," exactly what he had to jettison to write CPR.

Unusually for a philosopher, Kant does mark the moment of the turn in his thinking that led to his mature work, his pondering of the implications of Hume. So there is, at least in Kant's telling, a before and after. So a simple chronology should provide an answer to your question. Aside from that, I see nothing in this quote that foreshadows CPR.

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