Marx through turning Hegel 'upside-down' has huge historical importance on literature, art, economics & most obviously politics. A great deal of the history of the 20th century would not be understandable without it.
Freuds discovery of the unconscious & dream hinterland helped propel surrealism as a significant art movement, psycho-therapy, David Lynchs film career, advertising & the use of effective propaganda by the state & big business.
Fanons philosophy of the Native was crucial in the theoretical discourse of the anti-colonial movement (as amplified by Sartre). He was taught by Aime Cesaire a left-leaning poet from Martinique who studied in France and a founder of the 'negritude' movement which included Leopold Senghor, president of Senegal.
Derrida (who was born in Algeria) through subversion of the semiotics as channelled by Gayatri Spivak is important to a lot of activism around voicing the subordinate position of the subaltern - "can the subaltern speak" - this term itself is taken from Gramsci, an italian marxist thinker & activist.
Levi-Strauss through his structural anthropology and field-research in the Amazon made intellectuel space for mass indigenous movements possible - for example in south america, and india.
Lyotard turned modernism on its head - after Nietszches derailment of the grand narrative of Christianity - helping to derail the grand narrative of modernism - of truth & progress. He moved the 'society of the Spectacle' - the preliminary investigation into the new media by the situationist Guy Debord where simulcra takes the place of reality in recognition of the heightened importance of media.
The Kantian notion of the observer being implicated in the observed had ramifications in the philosophy of quantum physics aka the copenhagen interpretation. His revitalisation of the idea of Aristotelean categories was significant enough that the founders of Category Theory (in mathematics) named their discipline after it. (Although not traditionally counted as a continental philosopher, as he is not a modern one) Liebniz ideas on the relativity of space by way of Mach influenced Einstein.