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In Arabic, we have the concept 'ahlak' which is often translated into english as 'moral', but in fact they are not the same, and so following the principle of exegetical neutrality, I shall simply use 'moral' and 'morality'. Please note 'ahlak' means something close to the human instinct for values whether they're are right or wrong, good or bad so it differs from altruism. It is about your expectations for others or your innate attitudes. So in this vein, 'ahlak' is a property of agents and roughly encompasses how values impact the community.

So, what does contemporary philosophy say about the purpose of moral values in the context of community?

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  • I gave an answer here, that we hijacked shame and disgust which were evolved, to serve purposes of more flexibly adapting how we live together, and that we call this morality philosophy.stackexchange.com/questions/77168/… Utopia is a slippery concept.. We discussed a related question: philosophy.stackexchange.com/questions/76956/…
    – CriglCragl
    Nov 14 '20 at 21:09
  • I am talking about philosophy . But you are talking about science . How questions are unique to science and answer how morality or sth evolved over the course of time. But it cannot answer my question. You have to make the difference between science and philosopy. Science can not answer ' what is Sth For' questions I mean theological questions ,final questions. Questions about the essence of the things . thological,final questions refers future but science can explain only past. This is a platform which phılosophıcal ıssues are debated with philosophical expressions but not scientific . Nov 14 '20 at 21:32
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    It is for living well together. Now, how to create a future where we live better or the best (utopia) together, that requires all of philosophy to answer. And, until an approach is tried, it's pretty much just an opinion. In the long post I linked I suggested recognising intersubjectivity as pre-foundational to language helps, and that play is part of the mode of creative development of ourselves & our capacities, in which once we have met our material needs we find greatest fulfilment. I see that as directed towards greater eusociality, collective intelligence, in which we are like cells.
    – CriglCragl
    Nov 14 '20 at 21:51
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    @CriglCragl As for the evolutionary side, Michael Tomasello is an excellent source on that, in case you don't know him.
    – Philip Klöcking
    Nov 14 '20 at 21:59
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    I have studied ethics and human nature in my masters degree in philosophy, thanks ;) Philosophy should not try to separate itself from science IMHO. And speaking of essences is just outdated in contemporary philosophy.
    – Philip Klöcking
    Nov 14 '20 at 22:16

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