Is the mind a substance in dual aspect monism?

In philosophy, "substance" is like "atom", which is the ultimate independent real existence not depending on other entities, is the unit of knowledge.

So let's say something is an existence that depends on some other entity. Let's say a banana in a game relies on a computer for its existence. What do you call such an object? A non-atom?

  • Dependent object.
    – Conifold
    Commented Feb 27, 2021 at 23:07
  • ...and see substance. Commented Mar 30, 2021 at 6:09
  • 1
    Per the bare term substance itself, it was usually paired with attribute. Then we had the question of intrinsic vs. extrinsic attributes, necessary vs. contingent attributes, etc. Commented Jul 23, 2022 at 11:56
  • Is there a way to distinguish the "x that is not a substance" from nothing? 🤔
    – Hudjefa
    Commented Mar 28 at 7:01

2 Answers 2


From my limited experience of philosophy jargons, usually laypeople call it "phenomena", "thing", "stuff", "reflection", "illusion". People with science background usually call "composite", "matter". Some people with religion background call it "codependent arising", "dream". Some philosophy academic call "qualia", "emergence", etc... It sounds a little confusing, but that's the manifoldness of most human encounterings, and perhaps more importantly, it's a critical hint that seemingly dry philosophical thinking may help you not only understand yourself more, it may help you understand others more too...


Here substance is existence itself.

[Descartes] takes the Being of 'Dasein' (to whose basic constitution Being-in-the-world belongs) in the very same way as he takes the Being of the res extensa—namely, as substance. (B&T, p. 131)


Yet man's 'substance' is not spirit as a synthesis of soul and body; it is rather existence. (B&T, p. 153)

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