What is it called to consider the whole to be the fundamental block of reality rather than its parts? Philosophers most often say that the building blocks of this world are small like atoms like Democritus the greek philosopher, but some suggest that the whole is the building blocks and we have a bias towards seeing the smaller things as the building block. What is this position called in philosophy? Is there any related term?
The view that sees the whole first is (w)holism. The opposite is called reductionism. The whole is reduced to its parts.
It depends on your personal taste which one you prefer. Reductionists claim to have found a theory of everything but their everything is a ràther limited view on reality. Only in the reductionist view you can call this theory one of everything. Only elementary particles ( their number can even be reduced to two) are considered.
Composed objects are considered but a reductionist thinks that all properties of these objects can be reduced to the properties of the basis.
Holists think that the properties of large structures can't be reduced. Composed objects have properties that they posses by the very fact that they are composed and even consider them composed is an artifact.
Most present day physicists have a reductionist mind, especially elementary particle ones. As you might have guesded.
David Bohm is a physicist who has an ouspoken holist view on reality. In his book "Wholeness and Implicate Order" he displays his ideas. Reality consists of an infinite number of layers that are loosely connected. The strength of the connection between two layers depends on where the layerd are in the stack.
Many problems in our world are caused by a reductionist view on Nature but this not the place to go any deeper into that. Reductionism combombulates holism, in general but not vice-versa.
So take your pick!