I may be clutching at straws in my search for clarity on this topic, and being not a graduate philosopher but a layman, please forgive me if the following seems obtuse or inane.
But it seems to me, that on the course of all scientific study, there is a moment that we realise our theories - our mathematics and other developments - are merely models, and have come from the mind of mere humans. That is really to put the standing of all our intellectual advancement in a rather pejorative way, but the question is not what this mode of thinking is called.
Rather, it is what the original mode of thinking is called, that preceded this understanding. That is, what do we call the mode of thinking (if any) that takes scientific reasoning in a 'factual', 'undeniable' light? That is, what do we call that mode of thinking, that takes the 'pejorative' sense of human advancement dispassionately, and claims a simpler, naïve approach?
I hope I am making sense. I believe the former approach is merely called 'science' (including models, etc). But it occurred to me that there may be a point of view which does not think about the way in which approximations can be made in science.