A friend of mine who has been reading Antonio Gramsci's Selection from Prison Notebooks is struggling to find out what II-~ means in the following paragraph:

"If there are still people at the enlarged meeting of the Executive who have not grasped the fact that the tactic of the united front will help us to overthrow the leaders of II and II-~ Internationals, these people should have an extra number of popular lectures and talks read to them."

I guess these Roman numerals refer to the Second and Two-and-a-half International (or the Vienna International).

Please let me know what you think.


1 Answer 1


Your guess is correct.

See Antonio Gramsci, Selections form The Prison Notebooks (Quintin Hoare & Geoffrey Nowell editors), Introduction, page xlviii:

"the II and II 1/2 Internationals"

that fits well with what is usually called:

"the International Working Union of Socialist Parties (IWUSP) (Second and a half International or Two-and-a-half International)".

  • Thanks very much.
    – M.N
    Commented Oct 27, 2021 at 10:11

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