I've got a logic exam coming up and one of the question types is puzzling to me. If anyone could help me by explaining what this is about to me, I would appreciate it greatly.

Note: I was unable to figure out how to format the matrix part of this question, so I've attached a screenshot containing the problem below.

enter image description here

I don't understand what the matrix is supposed to signify. Can someone interpret this for me? Also, please indicate how you would solve this problem. Thank you very much, any help is appreciated.

1 Answer 1


The matrix appears to give the extension of the predicate/relation in question. For example, J is a predicate such that Jb holds and Ja doesn't. Similarly, L is a relation such that Lbb doesn't hold. Can you solve the rest from here?

  • Thank you, that was very helpful! I will now try, and post my result. Btw, though it seems kind of immaterial, what does the 'I' in the matrix stand for? Individual statement?
    – Zane A.
    May 8, 2022 at 21:45
  • So, I've figured out that the 1st formula is false, while the 2nd is true. The first one is not true because it is false that Lbb. The second one is true because Ka-->Lab is true and Ka-->Laa is true; and because Kb-->Lba and Kb-->Lbb are also true (easy to see because Kb is false). Do you agree with my reasoning? Thank you for helping me interpret the matrix.
    – Zane A.
    May 8, 2022 at 22:14
  • 1
    the I is the interpretation function
    – emesupap
    May 8, 2022 at 22:30

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