You're touching at the crux of the matter when it comes to defining knowledge as "justified true belief", which is that, since we can't have direct access to the truth but only have reasonable confidence that a given fact is true, all we have to decide wether a belief is true or not is the justification. Therefore "justified true" appears to be redundant and "justified belief" is the best we can reach.
(Unless someone believes we can reach absolute truth through some kind of osmosis with reality, but this belief would require a justification, and so on)
This posits the problem of what "justified" means. People might feel justified but be wrong, like people who think the earth is flat because it looks flat from the ground. This means what those people holds to be knowledge isn't knowledge after all. The definition of "justified" itself is not consensual, and still actively discussed even among scientists and philosophers of science.
The lesson to take away is that no knowledge is so firmly grounded that it's justification can never be attacked by a better argument, resulting in a better justification for better knowledge. It also requires every person who claims to be knowledgeable to do their due diligence in pursuing justification and be open to counter arguments.
In the case of the prophet you describe, I have no doubt that he could feel justified, but would have to ask if he considered the many people who genuinely claimed to receive messages from God or angels and ended up wrong, suggesting that what he considers to be justified is not so reasonable after all.