We have all heard of Hegel's or Marx's ideas about what drives human history. Likewise, during the 19th century, other ideas on the same subject were formulated by authors such as Thomas Carlyle or Herbert Spencer. These four authors propose frankly very divergent ideas about what produces historical changes and the role of a single individual in triggering a chain of events that modify the historical record.
Perhaps the extreme diversity of ideas about the "engine of history" led to a loss of interest in these ideas. But even in modern times Francis Fukuyama or Samuel Huntington have had their say (it is, for example, extremely curious that Fukuyama, being ideologically opposed to Marx, came to formulate ideas on techno-economic determinism).
My question is about what other philosophers and authors have written during the last 3 decades their reflections on what drives human history.