The OP's original question was extensively edited by Mark Andrews after this response was written.
From a metaphysical standpoint, you are trying to determine what is the metaphysically necessary link between two concepts that are related in the philosophy of mind. I don't think philosophers generally have a consensus on the relationships among intentionality, consciousness, awareness, self-awareness, intelligence, and cognition (but you'll hear all manner of claims from the thinkers on PhilSE here!). Each term has subtle distinctions with various definitions vying for control to describe aspects of what might be considered "thought". While intelligence and consciousness are generally considered to be concomitant, there are definitions and contexts where one can exclude the other, though my sense is that intelligence is generally understood to presuppose consciousness in biological organisms, the opposite of what you suggest.
From a naturalized epistemology, views on intelligence are usually adopted from psychologists, and consciousness is usually discussed in terms of cognitive science, often borrowing heavily from contemporary facts from neurology. John Searle's The Mystery of Consciousness dips heavily into the latter particularly in his sections involving Daniel Dennett and Gerald Edelman. It might help to use synonymy to differentiate the concepts:
- Consciousness is generally seen as a synonym for awareness.
- Intentionality is generally seen as a synonym for aboutness.
- Intelligence is usually seen more as a synonym for having the capacities for logical, linguistic, or symbolic abilities.
- Agency generally presupposes all three properties; for instance, a dog can be about getting a bone, can be argued to do so because of an awareness of hunger and food in the environment, and can use send signals such as barking or read environmental cues from other dogs and people to negotiate a path to achieving a goal. In this way, dogs possess a limited form of agency.
A non-biological example might be that AI can be considered intelligent because an NLP system might be able to carry on limited discourse, but wouldn't demonstrate consciousness. And on the other hand, most people will ascribe consciousness to a new born baby whose intelligence after birth is less than that of a dog, and yet clearly manifests an awareness of internal and external states. These differences in meanings also manifest themselves in the categories of the functions of language where clearly metalinguistic use of language demonstrates both an awareness and an intelligence about language use.
It's not controversial to claim all of these terms suffer from demarcation problems insofar as no definitions are definitive. The WP article on consciousness has a section "The problem of definition", and having read on various topics, one inevitably runs into a panoply of claims and definitions. For instance, psychologists who study human intelligence favor the g-factor and the Cattell-Horn theory of intelligence. A computer scientist may find a definition of intelligence that includes artificial intelligence. And of course, the holy grail for computer scientists is artificial general intelligence which one might caricature as AI plus awareness.
So, if one extends a definition of intelligence to cover AI, then intelligence can be argued to exist without consciousness. If one extends the definition of consciousness to a lower-order animal, such as a cockroach, then one might argue that consciousness exists without intelligence. It is in the human being that both are generally presumed to exist in tandem. Given evolution, if any claim were to be made about the necessity of one before the other, it might be that it is intelligence that presupposes consciousness, at least in terms of evolutionary psychology, since if intelligence is more strongly associated with animal communication (signals and symbols), it is the awareness that inheres to consciousness that allows it possible for the ability to use communication effectively.
EDIT 2022-07-14: A good place to start with papers on this topic would be https://philpapers.org/browse/philosophy-of-consciousness.