No. Because of insight. No. Because "it just came to me." ( said the genius )
The problem with insight as an exception to the premise of your question, is "in a flash" an entire problem or creation can be laid bare in the mind. Others may never reach the point of "productivity" inherent to who another individual "is," and if they did, it might take +1000x the energy expense. There is no level playing field in creation. Some creations are not the product of effort, but expressions of self.
The expectation that energy is a requirement of creation is against the best of the best, and how their works result. And inversely to how eating an Apple burns more calories than it contains, with true creation, more energy is gained than is expended. And I am not reducing energy expenses to brain activity, or physical phenomena by mentioning an apple. I do not believe energy expense in creation and problem solving to be even minimally brain oriented. The brain is not where the work occurs, or where the energy is expended, it is an instrument. Yes, energy is expended there for the tool to function, but that is an entirely different item, completely irrelevant of the root and pertinent activity performed.
No. Because hallucinogens would disrupt the entire basis of the math.
It is a well known fact that the states entered by LSD, peyote, MDMA, DMT, psilocybin, etc... are game changers for those contemplating extremely complicated problems, or pursuing radically creative undertakings. Those same projects could take 100x the time and energy, or be unattainable without conscious expansion. And I'll sidestep the onrush of claims that hallucinogens are alterations and not standard-worthy factors here by saying, "you don't know what you don't know you don't know." If insight is a factor in energy expenditure, so are all other means of reaching a new conscious plane.
No. Because time is relative, beyond the physical plane... and time is flexible.
How fast is the energy expended? In an instant? How long is that instant? How much energy is expended during that interval of immeasurable time? The questions continue on and on, making quantifying energy expenditure impossible to calculate if time is ever a factor in the calculation, because the participant and observer in this experiment are both outside the frame of physical space and time, as much as they are in it. More than the doubt I raise, time is elastic, and the level of enjoyment and engagement modifies the amount expended. The "time flies when you're having fun" concept is not just figurative or subjective, there is a change that cannot be calculated, which alters the kind or amount of time and energy expended. It is on a level that blurs the line between environment and participant, and between participant and observer, and between energy and time, and between space and energy, and between energy and space, etc. "There is no spoon" is a show stopper for quantifying energy expense in creativity or problem solving. There is nothing to measure, statically.
No. Because: Energy is Exogenous. No. Because: Energy is Endogenous.
Depending on your perspective on the creation or problem, the location of the creation and the location of the energy are not within the same system always. This can go on forever, trying to enumerate the location where energy is expended and where creation results, but I will end this partial list by saying that the mind is one level of reality, one location for effort to take place. That draws energy from other levels and there is a rate of exchange there, and as I said above about creation being inverse to eating an Apply, that energy exchange itself might distort your calculation by comparing influxes of energy of an entirely different system with calculation based on a lower or different quality or nature of energy.
And, of computers and computation: Lateral thinking and the counter-part in technology is also a road-block for quantifying what you want to measure, because the above negative answers also apply to programming. The programmer with a deeper or higher or lighter consciousness, whatever you want to call it, crafts a technology which is far more lateral than brute force in its execution and operation. Here again, there is no way to measure what cannot be statically defined, because it has to do with the nature of the creator, not the environmental factors, the tool operation cost, the circumstances, etc. The vast majority of what you want to measure is "behind the veil" of the self, or concealed by the inability to go into transcendence and return with "data." When the ego is lost and the love of the focus ignites, the individual changes into the creator, more than the creation is manifested. That is not costly, that is evolutionary. It is as if the field becomes the place where the creation originated, rather than the originated creation coming into being. The whole loops in upon itself at every point, which is immeasurable. The entire world has changed by the time the calculation is started, and again while it occurs, and again when it finished, and an infinite number of times in between those points.