First of all the "laws of robotics" intrinsically don't work and Asimov himself basically provided a series of short stories called "I, Robot", where he introduces and breaks these very laws in more or less creative ways.
Second of all, afaik the Turing test has the simple premise that humans are intelligent and if machines can pass as humans they would thus also be intelligent.
There are several problems with that, namely that:
- you could fake intelligence by saying the right things without knowing what they mean ("chinese room argument")
- it might be more about the believes, skepticism and phantasy of the
the observer than the intelligence of the machine.
- not everything that humans do is intelligent and that not
everything that is intelligent is something that humans do. That
computers might exceed human intelligence in some domains and lack in
- Also it's binary and not really measurable, scalable or otherwise usefully quantified.
Also it's about INTELLIGENCE not ROBOTS. Like a robot, but even more so a human, is a physical entity with a physical, chemical, biological, ..., signature that can be identified as such. "Intelligence" is much more complicated and makes the question "where are you?" and "what are you" much more difficult. That's why this text based interface is possible, because the physical form is not relevant for something to be or not be intelligent.
I mean in physicalism intelligence would still need to have a material form in one way or another, but for example the concept of "the mind" is often much harder to localize and pin down than for example a leg.
So no telling machines and humans apart is easy, drawing a demarcation line for intelligence is a much harder task. But for all intents and purposes we are concerned with us fleshy meat sacks not intelligence, ... when it comes to the 3 laws of robotics.
- If AI can identify humans from AI then AI is more intelligent than
humans (AI cognitive capacity exceeds that of humans)
As shown, that doesn't have to be the case. Just attach sensors that let it detect human or machine, no intelligence on the machines end.
- If AI can't identify humans from AI then AI can't follow the 3 laws
Yes. For most cases they'd just treat robots as humans and not harm them either, which would not be a problem. But if you want to bring them to their knees you'd subject them to the trolley problem where every possibly option would violate one or more of these laws, even suicide and contemplating too long.
- Either AI is more intelligent than humans or AI can't follow the 3
laws of robotics.
Even if they are more intelligent they could still be following some arbitrary rules. Like the creation of a limiting mechanism might require intelligence X humans have intelligence X+1 robots have intelligence X+2 and the removal of the mechanism requires X+3 so.