In an article published in Le Nouvel Observateur in Oct 1978 (here 1), Foucault says two things I'm not sure I understand: first that during his journey in Iran everything he heard about the definitions of an islamic government was not reassuring: that all that he heard are (translated) "the basic formulas of democracy, bourgeois or revolutionary, [formulas that we] never ceased from repeating since the 18th century and you know what they led to", and secondly he talks about something we (Westerners, I guess...) lost, "this thing of which we have forgotten the possibility since the Renaissance and Christianity great crises: a political spirituality".

When he says "you know what these formulas led to": what is he referring to?
And regarding this policital spirituality (of which he seems to be so nostalgic), are there works of him in which he develops more widely what he means by this?


  • Voting to close because this is an English-language site and the question cannot be understood without speaking French. I propose it be moved to a French-language site. Jan 9, 2023 at 20:04
  • If I'm not mistaken the name of this group starts with "philosophy", and I translated everything in English...
    – Seb
    Nov 3, 2023 at 8:04


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