This is only intended as hints and not as a complete answer as that would require extensive discussion and references.
If the dialectic process (according to Hegel) is an "immutable" law of the world, why can't others be as well (possibly stemming from applications of the dialectic process itself)?
This is only a hint at how one could possibly accomodate (immutable?) physical laws into dialectics.
It is, therefore, from the history of nature and human society that
the laws of dialectics are abstracted. For they are nothing but the
most general laws of these two aspects of historical development, as
well as of thought itself. And indeed they can be reduced in the main
- The law of the transformation of quantity into quality and vice versa;
- The law of the interpenetration of opposites;
- The law of the negation of the negation.
[..]We are not concerned here with writing a handbook of dialectics,
but only with showing that the dialectical laws are really laws of
development of nature, and therefore are valid also for theoretical
Engels, Dialectics of Nature
When two bodies act on each other so that a change of place of one or
both of them results, this change of place can consist only in an
approach or a separation. They either attract each other or they repel
each other. Or, as mechanics expresses it, the forces operating
between them are central, acting along the line joining their centres.
That this happens, that it is the case throughout the universe without
exception, however complicated many movements may appear to be, is
nowadays accepted as a matter of course. It would seem nonsensical to
us to assume, when two bodies act on each other and their mutual
interaction is not opposed by any obstacle or the influence of a third
body, that this action should be effected otherwise than along the
shortest and most direct path, i.e. along the straight line joining
their centres. It is well known, moreover, that Helmholtz (Erhaltung
der Kraft [The Conservation of Force], Berlin, 1847, Sections 1 and 2)
has provided the mathematical proof that central action and
unalterability of the quantity of motion are reciprocally conditioned
and that the assumption of other than central actions leads to results
in which motion could be either created or destroyed. Hence the basic
form of all motion is approximation and separation, contraction and
expansion - in short, the old polar opposites of attraction and
Engels, Dialectics of Nature
Engels, for example, although accepts that "water boils at 100 degrees Celsius" as a physical law, he makes clear that this law is only valid when additional variables are also at specific values (eg Pressure, etc..) . So a consequence is that, if conditions are such that pressure, for example, does not have a suitable value, the law "water boils at 100 degrees Celsius" ceases to actually happen.
PS: It is of value to note that Hegel's dissertation was on planetary orbits and how the laws governing these orbits (eg Kepler's laws) could be derived philosophically.
De orbitis planetarum (Hegel's dissertation)