Are there considerations and reflections about other cultures and peoples (than Confucianism and confucianist societies) in Confucianism? For instance concerning the kind of relationship a confucianism adhering individual/people should have with non-confucianist individual/peoples.

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    i read something, that the Chinese suppose that west individuum mind based on the sin/fault cult and contracts, and chinese on (no word something when you feel remorse cuz other, not you, the individual fault/happiness feeling that spreading on group) with relations on connected to close others, that is why thay not need laws to keep the moral, moral is depends on traditions Commented Feb 20, 2023 at 8:12

2 Answers 2


See the Huá and Yí distinction.

"While at home hold yourself in a respectful attitude; when serving in an official capacity be reverent; when dealing with others do your best. These are qualities which cannot be put aside even if you go to live among the barbarians." - Analects 15.5

“If a virtuous man dwelt among them, what barbarian would there be?” - Analects 9.14

  • Seems this "Hua and Yi distinction" is framed in the East-Asian geographical area. Don't know how it applies to peoples outside this area.
    – Starckman
    Commented Jul 22, 2023 at 3:51
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    @Starckman: Not really, as that second quote shows. It's about adherence to en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_(Confucianism), the Confucian picture of virtue. Master Kong's life was in the Western Zhou Empire, making most of China barbarians then. Later Korea & Japan took up Confucianism, making them non-barbarian. Context of Confucianism here: philosophy.stackexchange.com/questions/86757/…
    – CriglCragl
    Commented Jul 22, 2023 at 10:00
  • Maybe getting out of subject here, but recently (last one/two century/ies), East-Asia has become more ethno-nationalist (thinking about Taiwan, Singapore, Korea, and China). If it is not under the influence of confucianism, is it under the influence of Japan? I don't even know from where Japan developed its ethno-nationalism, seems German nationalism is absolutely not the only source
    – Starckman
    Commented Jul 22, 2023 at 10:06
  • @Starckman: Ethno-nationalism is on the rise in many places, the USA, Hungary, France. I'd look at it as a human atavism, & go to Haidt's work on Moral Foundations Theory, about the Authority/Subversion & Sanctity/Degradation foundations getting more activated by a sense of threat. It's a widespread political tactic to focus on external threats, to distract from demands for reform at home. News & social media ('doomscrolling') also tend to activate perceptions of threat. It triggers greater in-group preference, & less tolerance of difference
    – CriglCragl
    Commented Jul 22, 2023 at 10:20
  • "Ethno-nationalism is on the rise in many places" koreatimes.co.kr/www/opinion/2023/07/638_232674.html
    – Starckman
    Commented Jul 22, 2023 at 10:27

China WAS and is Central Land. Even today the business class of all Asia is ethnic Chinese. There is no question of China capturing Asia. They did that long ago. Asia “kneels” to China as Central Land. It is better to say most of Asia respects China as Central Land (Japan may be the exception).

Otherwise, Confucius said preserve the nouns. This is Plato also. Fix the nouns into transcendental real unchanging things or forms. This is also French structuralism where the structure itself is the fixed form. All of these are conservative philosophies.

With Aristotle things begin to move. If you have Aristotle, in no matter the form, you have a radical on your hands. Even Aquinas can be turned into a radical. Hence Benedict 16 was in a hurry to get back to Augustine.

I don’t think Confucius would think beyond the Chinese context, but I’m not an expert on all of his thought.

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    Do you have any source of what you are saying? I think the OP wants authoritative references, given that the question is about the position of Confucianism with respect to externals, not external interpretations of Confucianism. But maybe I'm mistaken.
    – user64708
    Commented Feb 20, 2023 at 18:16
  • President XiJinping has replied to a letter from Professor Stelios Virvidakis of the University of Athens and 4 other Greek scholars recently, extending congratulations over the founding of the Center of Chinese and Greek Ancient Civilizations.
    – Gordon
    Commented Feb 21, 2023 at 21:44
  • The source for “preserving the nouns” was Joseph Campbell. The source for ethnic Chinese controlling business in Asia was some Asian Affairs Journal I read one time. The Comment above about Xi and letter posted on Twitter today by Chinese Gvt official.
    – Gordon
    Commented Feb 21, 2023 at 21:51
  • I don’t read Chinese, but I have been told that the Chinese calligraphy for China, one symbol, means Central Land.
    – Gordon
    Commented Feb 21, 2023 at 21:58
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    All the other stuff was my own informed opinion though I am surely considered to be an idiot by some folks.
    – Gordon
    Commented Feb 21, 2023 at 22:04

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