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Life-death, heavy–light, hot–cold and slow–fast are some of the most conventionalized pairs along the semantic dimensions of existence, weight, temperature and speed that require contextual motivation to be understood as a contrast of opposing elements

In order to be antonyms, these pairs occupy the opposite sides of a midpoint. The distances from the midpoint are of equal magnitude (hot–cold), rather than placements on the same side (cool–cold)

But are Life and Death opposites? Is Death "the end of Life"? Or are there philosophical definitions in which Life and Death lie in a compatible, synonymous relationship?

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  • Another pair of antonyms: Open closed.
    – Boba Fit
    Mar 30, 2023 at 13:43
  • 1
    Yes, zombies are both alive and dead. Mar 30, 2023 at 14:54
  • @BobaFit In topology, there are clopen sets which are both closed and open.
    – Sandejo
    Mar 30, 2023 at 21:12
  • Open.... And THEN closed.
    – Boba Fit
    Mar 30, 2023 at 22:54
  • @Sandejo "closed" and "open" are just names we gave to two possible properties of sets, they are not the same as the everyday usage of those terms.
    – 79037662
    Mar 31, 2023 at 18:02

6 Answers 6

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'Opposites' are what Wittgenstein called a language-game. It is a conceptual metaphor, that we can use to organise experiences, towards making inferences.

Consider hot and cold. What is your reference? Body temperature right, 'luke warm'. So are the categories hotness and coldness, out there in the world being opposite to each other? No, they have an implicit context, they are tools we use, relationally to ourselves, to organise experiences and communicate about them. But we can go into our experiences more deeply, we can define temperature scales and so on.

Consider them as an example of 'chunking', like how we group similar experiences so that we can analyse probabilities: Does logic give us a single definitive and universal answer for comparing the odds of unlikely events?

The more general issue of how we get math and logic from the world and why they are useful: The Unreasonable Ineffectiveness of Mathematics in most sciences

And the thorny example of understanding antonyms, that is good vs evil: Does philosophy have a dark side? And the tricky question of 'nothing': How to explain nothingness in Consciousness theory of Tegmark

If life and death are antonyms, what is being in a persistent vegetative state, a coma with brain-stem death? Are conscious and unconscious opposites? A child was part of it's mothers body, joined by the umbilical cord, so does leaving descendents mean the matrilineal line isn't dead? Is there less-alive and more-alive?

Defining life is a whole topic, like temperature you can go from having two categories hot and cold, more deeply into experiences, using entropy or real-patterns to quantify things. But, you can't put a sharp line between life and non-life, and that shouldn't be surprising because we think life 'blurred' into existence emergently. Viruses pose a serious challenge, because although they are 'dead' molecules they perform replucation by 'hacking' living cells. Detailed issues discussed here: Are Life and Intelligence analogous?

"are there philosophical definitions in which Life and Death lie in a compatible, synonymous relationship?"

Synonyms..? I don't really see what you mean. It's interesting to consider the Taiji of Daoism, more commonly known as the yin-yang. In this picture it is not only the positive presence of the structure of a cup, but the negative presence of the empty space in the structure, that makes it what it is, makes it useful. We tend to look at death as negation of lie, ignoring how it has enabled complexity, made space for change. See: Is Death a Feature or a Bug? In the Daoist picture life and death arise together, shape each other. Apoptosis, programmed cell-death, literally carves our body shape from a lump of cells, for instance seperating our fingers. It prevents us getting cancer (mostly). And death is always there, a kind of ground of being that arose with life. More on the Taiji: Philosophers or philosophical traditions that reject symbolic reasoning

'Oposites' aren't simply outvin the world, waiting for us to notice them. It's a metaphor that we twist and extend and play with creatively. It is a game we play. See 'Surfaces and Essences: Analogy as the Fuel and Fire of Thinking', by Hofstadter & Sander. Organising experiences to extract useful guidance how to act, is knowledge. Chunking helps us make models of the world that simplify things enough to run on our squishy hardware. It's not 'are life and death synonyms or antonyms?', it's what inferences can we draw if we imagine them one way, or the other. It's what happens if, we engage playfully with experiences, to draw out metaphors and models, to build strange-loops and tangled-hierarchies.

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    This was more than helpful. I'm touched by the detailed explanations and links here 😊
    – ActualCry
    Mar 30, 2023 at 16:44
  • Herr Ludwig Wittgenstein is apropos here! Jul 24, 2023 at 13:04
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"Let us beware of saying that death is the opposite of life. The living being is only a species of the dead, and a very rare species." -Friedrich Nietzsche, in 'The Gay Science'

Maybe this poem can make Nietzsche's statement clearer:

"I stand at the seashore, alone, and start to think.

There are the rushing waves

mountains of molecules

each stupidly minding its own business

trillions apart

yet forming white surf in unison.

.

Ages on ages

before any eyes could see

year after year, thunderously

pounding the shore as now.

For whom? For what?

On a dead planet

with no life to entertain.

.

Never at rest

tortured by energy

wasted prodigiously by the sun

poured into space.

A mite makes the sea roar.

.

Deep in the sea

all molecules repeat

the patterns of one another

till complex new ones are formed.

They make others like themselves

and a new dance starts.

.

Growing in size and complexity

living things

masses of atoms

DNA protein

dancing a pattern ever more intricate. .

Out of the cradle

onto dry land

here it is

standing:

atoms with consciousness;

matter with curiosity.

.

Stands at the sea,

wonders at wondering:

I

a universe of atoms

an atom in the universe."

-Richard Feynman

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    – Community Bot
    Mar 31, 2023 at 19:34
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I think you are being too restrictive in considering that opposites lie equidistant from some contextual midpoint. I agree that many opposites are associated with qualities that lie towards different ends of some spectrum, such as fat/thin, lazy/energetic, radical/conservative, but I think it is stretching a point to consider them as being equidistant when you are talking about qualities that can't really be quantified in any meaningful sense, so the idea of a clear cut mid-point between rude and polite, say, doesn't make sense. Also, there are opposites- particularly verbs- that don't express contrasting ends of a spread but instead refer to some form of reciprocal relationship, such as import and export, give and take etc.

Life and death are clearly opposites in one sense, in that they are incompatible binary states, but in some contexts what they have in common may be more important than what separates them, so their oppositeness becomes irrelevant. It is rather like the distinction between import and export, which might be irrelevant to someone who is just concerned about the overall volume of trade, regardless of the direction in which goods are flowing. In many religions there is an important distinction between the corporeal and the spiritual, so while corporeal life and death may be opposites in a physical sense they are simply two stages of spiritual life. And the undertaker measuring your corpse for a coffin will consider you in much the same way as your tailor once did.

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In order to be antonyms, these pairs occupy the opposite sides of a midpoint. The distances from the midpoint are of equal magnitude (hot–cold), rather than placements on the same side (cool–cold)

This is nonsense. Life and death are not positions on some yard stick. If they were, what exactly would be in the middle? And how far are life an death from the middle, measured in inches?

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Life and death are not like that your other opposites. The difference between heavy and light refers to scale of weight, which has infinitely many graduations; that is the unity between opposites that you are looking for. Similarly for hot/cold and slow/fast.

But life and death are more like polar concepts - north/south and east/west. Yet they also have many graduations between them. The same applies to open/closed.

What is different about life vs death is that death is the end of life; the other examples cited aren't the end of anything. But if death is the end of life, the beginning is birth. Those are connected, of course, by the life in between. So you could think of birth, life and death as connected in a unity - the cycle of life.

Of course, this is all different if you believe in an after-life. Death would then be a transition to another stage of life. The opposite of life then would probably be the state of being inanimate. (I don't think there's one word for that.)

EDIT BEGINS HERE

I've realized now that I was answering the question as asked and did not question the presuppositions of the question.

Life and death are indeed antonyms. But then, what do we say about birth? We are most preoccupied with death because it is our unknown future. But birth is a mirror image of death and just as mysterious and important as death.

So are life and birth antonyms as well? Can a single concept have two antonyms? Or do we have to think of birth and death as the same? That's not exactly wrong, since they are the borders of life.

Binary thinking can be useful, but can also be misleading and there's nothing about the concept of language-games that limits them to two concepts. We decide when to think in binary terms and when we need more complicated structures. For example, for certain purposes, we often think of north and south as opposites and choose to ignore east and west in this context. But one cannot really understand north and south without including east and west.

It is better to think and life as part of a triad and a cycle. Birth is the beginning of life, life is a process, death is the end of life. There are variants of this that posit a life before birth and/or a life after death. But they also recognize birth and death as transitions, so that does not undermine the basic structure.

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Wanted, Dead OR Alive

There's no difference between Billy dead and Billy alive.

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