I am seeking a comprehensive and rigorous analysis of the concept of Intelligent Design (ID) in order to determine whether it meets the essential requirements to be considered a scientific theory. I am particularly interested in gathering insights from the philosophy of science perspective.
Intelligent Design proposes that certain features of the natural world are best explained by an intelligent cause rather than an undirected process such as natural selection. While proponents argue that ID should be recognized as a scientific theory, critics often assert that it lacks scientific legitimacy.
To address this question, I would appreciate detailed and well-supported explanations regarding the essential characteristics and criteria that a scientific theory must fulfill. This would include but is not limited to:
Falsifiability: Does Intelligent Design make testable predictions that, if proven false, would contradict its central claims?
Empirical evidence: What empirical evidence supports or refutes the claims made by Intelligent Design?
Methodology: Does Intelligent Design follow established scientific methodologies, such as proposing hypotheses, conducting experiments, and engaging in peer review?
Consilience: Does Intelligent Design integrate with other scientific fields and theories, fostering a cohesive and interconnected body of knowledge?
Naturalistic explanations: How does Intelligent Design address the requirement of offering naturalistic explanations, which is commonly expected within scientific inquiry?
Consensus within the scientific community: What is the general opinion among experts in relevant scientific disciplines regarding the recognition of Intelligent Design as a scientific theory?
I kindly request that answers be framed within the context of the philosophy of science and be as rigorous and objective as possible.
EDIT: I disagree that this question is a duplicate of this one. You can learn more about my reasons in this meta question: Can question X be on-topic, question Y be off-topic, and X be closed as a duplicate of Y?