From this article:
First, [naturalistic dualism] seems to imply panpsychism, the view that everything in the universe has consciousness. Once you accept the existence of nonphysical features of the world that are fundamental, it is hard to find a principled way of limiting exactly where those fundamental features are found.
I'm not seeing it. I have argued myself that panpsychism is implied by the position that consciousness arises out of complexity or out of some property of algorithms or of machines that execute algorithms, but that's because there isn't a level at which these properties don't exist; it's all a matter of degree.
However, if all you are doing is asserting that qualia arise out of natural processes according to natural laws, what barrier is there to asserting that it only happens in, for example, biological processes?In fact, biological processes already have emergent properties such as organization and function, so adding qualia doesn't seem that much of a stretch.
This strikes me as an obvious alternative that does not imply panpsychism, so what am I missing?