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Questions tagged [abduction]

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Are there any fallacies in Stephen C. Meyer's argument for classical theism from the Big Bang singularity?

Christian YouTuber and apologist Brandon McGuire recently shared a review of Piers Morgan's interview with Stephen C. Meyer, author of Return of the God Hypothesis, on his talk show Piers Morgan ...
Mark's user avatar
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-1 votes
3 answers
131 views

Explain the answer from Reddit and give an explanation about Occam's Razor

https://www.reddit.com/r/askphilosophy/comments/bwcjpv/does_occams_razor_imply_solipsismsimulationism/ It says that Occam's razor can only be applied to competing theories: "Occam's Razor is a ...
Arnold's user avatar
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0 answers
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Is there any difference between abduction and induction in Bayesian terms?

In abduction we take some observations and try to find the hypothesis that best explains them. In Bayesian terms this sounds like finding the Maximum A Posteriori (MAP) estimate. To a Bayesian, "...
causative's user avatar
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1 answer
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Explain what the simplicity in this argument is based on

Other people have minds because it is the best explanation for other people's behavior because the existence of other minds is a simpler and more understandable explanation: It does not make me ...
Arnold's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
59 views

Is it reasonable to use induction to justify belief in the existence of other minds? [duplicate]

Is it reasonable to use an argument by analogy (induction) to justify belief in the existence of other minds? The principle of the uniformity of nature is used in the argument by analogy. https://...
Arnold's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
345 views

Are all arguments for the existence of other minds circular?

The argument from analogy and the best explanation argument (IBE) rely on the claim that my mental states are responsible for my behavior and then conclude that the behavior of other people is caused ...
Arnold's user avatar
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1 vote
6 answers
1k views

Does psychophysical harmony strongly point toward theism?

From Psychophysical Harmony: A New Argument for Theism, by Brian Cutter & Dustin Crummett: Abstract This paper develops a new argument from consciousness to theism: the argument from ...
Mark's user avatar
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1 vote
4 answers
871 views

Can an extraordinary hypothesis ever be the best explanation for a set of historical facts?

As a motivating example, I have in mind the minimal facts argument for the resurrection of Jesus, espoused by Christian apologists such as Gary Habermas, Michael Licona, and William Lane Craig. The ...
Mark's user avatar
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3 votes
3 answers
2k views

Fallacy of the Devil You Know

I just made up that name for the fallacy, but I'm wondering if there is a more common term for it. The fallacy is basically inferring from an inconclusive set of evidence to a particular explanation ...
David Gudeman's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
56 views

Is predictive power a criterion for pragmatism?

Is predictive power a criterion for pragmatism? In inference to the best explanation, one of the criteria is prognostic power. Does this criterion refer to pragmatism?
Arti's user avatar
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0 answers
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Meaning of falsification in different context

What is the meaning of devil's advocate. Is it same as falsification/falsifiability ? Can we use falsifiability/falsification for abductive reasoning ?
quanity's user avatar
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abductive reasoning in many fields of study

In continuation of the discussion What is the relation between abductive reasoning and fallacy? my question is that if medical science judiciary history all uses abductive reasoning (almost all the ...
quanity's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
235 views

What does the IBE argument (the best explanation argument) look like in favor of the existence of other minds?

I have read several versions of the IBE argument for the existence of other minds. But I got a little confused. Now I'm not sure I know what it should sound like. How should the IBE argument (argument ...
Johnny5454's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
165 views

How does the IBE arrive at the best explanation?

What is meant by the behavior of other people in argument? Here it is said that the simplicity of the explanation is decisive in choosing the best explanation. Solipsism has fewer entities(only my ...
Johnny5454's user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
121 views

How is it determined which explanation is simpler?

One of the criteria of IBE is simplicity. How to determine which explanation is simpler if there are two types of simplicity: one type counts the number of hearings, and the other type counts the ...
Johnny5454's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
185 views

Is the simpler explanation is the most likely, the most convincing and the most plausible?

Is the simpler explanation is the most likely, the most convincing and the most plausible? Occam's razor and abduction, on which inference to the best explanation is based, say that the simplest ...
Arti's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
143 views

Please clarify this answer about the argument

I did not understand how this argument should sound. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/other-minds/#BestExpl The article reads as follows: On this way of thinking, mental states are taken to be inner ...
Robert Antoni's user avatar
8 votes
5 answers
731 views

Epistemic value of multiple eyewitness accounts: single event vs. multiple events given a fixed number of eyewitnesses?

Intuitively speaking, multiple independent eyewitness accounts of a single event are more convincing than a single eyewitness account. For example, multiple independent eyewitness accounts of a loud ...
user avatar
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0 answers
40 views

Defeasible reasoning

a. If x is a weekday, Xena goes to work on day x. b. If Xena is ill, she doesn’t go to work that day. c.2 Jan ‘07 was a weekday. d. Xena was ill on 2 Jan. '07. e. By (a) and (c), Xena went to work on ...
quanity's user avatar
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4 votes
5 answers
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What is the relation between abductive reasoning and fallacy?

According to WP's article on abductive reasoning: [A]bduction is formally equivalent to the logical fallacy of affirming the consequent [citation needed] because of multiple possible explanations for ...
quanity's user avatar
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3 votes
3 answers
212 views

How likely is the simplest explanation of something the correct one?

When assuming how something is the way it is, you choose the simplest explanation. But what is the chance of this actually being the explanation? For example, say a cucumber randomly appeared on the ...
4117's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
90 views

What did evolutionary epistemology discover about our tendency to guess right abductively?

C.S. Peirce wrote: "[...] if the universe conforms, with any approach to accuracy, to certain highly pervasive laws, and if man's mind has been developed under the influence of those laws, it is ...
Mogli's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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Non-Deductive methods in philosophical argumentation

I'm a mathematician, and I'm trying to expand my understanding of the philosophical basis of mathematics. Mathematics is very much taught axiomatically establishing deductive theories, but philosophy ...
Wakem's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
70 views

Trying to understand the fallacy in my inductive reasoning regarding this conclusion? [closed]

Consider the following statements: Anna told you she failed her physics midterm. Anna hasn't been in physics class since the teacher graded the exams. Anna has been in sociology class, which meets ...
gpuguy's user avatar
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4 votes
5 answers
297 views

Are extraordinary first-hand subjective accounts more likely to be true the more people report the same experience?

For illustrative purposes, let's take as an example the following claim X = "I went to sleep, but then I suddenly woke up at 3:00 a.m. feeling a terrifying evil presence, and then my bed began to ...
user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
194 views

Justification for the paradigm of abductive reasoning

In Chance , Love and Logic, Peirce defines reasoning into two categories: analytic and non-analytic. All forms of reasoning have three fundamental components: rule, case, result. Analytic reasoning ...
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