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Questions tagged [argumentation]

The construction, deconstruction and presentation of arguments for a position;

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How does Meta-Physics influences in terms of properties, natures, causes and classes of beings [on hold]

How does Meta-Physics influences in terms of properties, natures, causes and classes of beings. I need your support on this topic.
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Rhetoric: How to frame redundancy in an argument as deficiency?

How can we categorize redundancy in an argument as deficiency? That is, weaken the argument because of its redundancy? Suppose X is an argument that boasts coherence and clarity, but it has various ...
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Is metaphysics justified in its conclusions?

I'm curious of the modern meta-philosophical viewpoints on metaphysical knowledge. That is, is it possible for arm-chair theorizing or rational pure thought alone to gain true knowledge about any ...
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What is the logical distinction between “the same” and “equal to?”

We all understand that Given A = C, and B = C, Then A = B. However, A is not “the same as” B. Example: A is the question, “What animals have feathers and can fly?” B is the question, “What was the ...
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Is this ad hominem or in general acceptable behavior during an argument?

Person A: What is considered socially acceptable should be common sense regardless of outside influences. Person B: What is considered common sense or obvious can be very different depending on ...
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Looking for existing discourse on the category of fallacies exemplified by “paradox of tolerance”

Popper coined the phrase "paradox of tolerance" when discussing how unlimited tolerance is self-contradictory (paradoxical) in that it precludes self-preservation (resisting intolerance). The seeming ...
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Diagram the following argument and explain which premises it is using such as intermediate, independent, or joint

① We should increase funding to public colleges and universities. First of all, ② as funding has decreased, students have had to shoulder a larger share of the financial burden of attending college, ...
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Demonstrate that the following argument is invalid

Some politicians are Democrats. Hillary Clinton is a politician. /⸫ Hillary Clinton is a Democrat. The argument's form is: Some A are B. x is A. /⸫ x is B. [where 'A' and 'B' stand for groups of ...
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Reasoning for deductive inference?

I got a quiz today in my classroom. I need to say True or False to the following: Deductive inferences are typically based on unfounded assumptions. For the valid deductive inference, the conclusion ...
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Would this be an invalid or valid argument? [closed]

All mathematical truths are knowable. All mathematical truths are eternal. So All that is knowable is eternal.
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Is Duff's test of failure just the contrapositive of “D intends a consequence of his action if he acts with the aim of producing that consequence”?

Isn't 2 (Duff's test of failure) just the contrapositive of 1? I can rephrase 2 as 2.1. If the result didn't occur, would D regard himself as having failed in his plan? The logical contrapositive ...
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Name of Argument Type

I'm trying to find the name of argument type used in the response to the statement. Statement: "The Apollo moon landing was a hoax ..." Response: "I'm not familiar with the x, y, z of your ...
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Presenting an example, then claiming the other person needs more information before using the same example - is either of us making a fallacy?

I recently had a conversation with someone in which they used an example to illustrate a point: "For example, if you tell me something [which isn't scientifically proven to be effective] works ...
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Is argument from need a valid type of reasoning, even in some cases?

To begin with, I know that if I need X , does not necessarily mean that X exists. But in some cases, it seems very convincing that if I need X then X exists. These are some examples : If I am ...
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How can we decide which view to accept concerning our ultimate justification of our knowledge (Münchhausen trilemma)?

I recently came across the Münchhausen trilemma, which I think helps to explain my question. Basically, according to the trilemma, we have three options for explaining the ultimate justification of ...
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Arguments against Relativism [closed]

There are people who think that all claims are opinions. And no opinion is better than any other. It's clear to me that the reasons supporting 2 + 2 = 4 are on "higher ground" than the reasons ...
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Trouble with cookies [closed]

Matter cannot be created. Cookies are matter. So cookies cannot be created. I know this seems absurd but I'm using this to make an important point about arguments. The argument appears to be valid ...
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Personal and unviersal existential nihlism

Let's say Alice has logically arrived at existential Nihilism, which is the philosophy that life is without objective meaning, purpose, or intrinsic value (wiki) This carries two claims, Alice's ...
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Why doesn't philosophy have higher standards for its arguments?

Mathematical systems are an excellent model for organizing and conducting thought: In the mathematics community, any argument in support of a conjecture, that deviates from "sound argument" never ...
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What should be the correct form for this particular argument?

Thank you for reading my concern and providing your precious time. I am writing this question to highlight the difficulty in solving the problem due to wrong punctuation and sentence construction. ...
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What fallacy is committed when one argues that a conclusion is false simply because the person arguing it has lied before?

For example, suppose I were to make the claim: President Trump says climate change is false. President Trump has lied before; therefore, climate change is true.
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Can a fact rely on an inference?

A syllogism with two facts as premises leads to a deduced fact: Premise 1: The sky is above my head (fact) Premise 2: I look up and I see blue (fact) Conclusion: The sky is blue (...
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Analogy between an unknown in an argument, and a contradiction in the principle of explosion

Context I like to argue that, since we do not know what consciousness is, we can not specify what it can not do. Therefore we can not state we can't do something now, nor in the future. Up to the ...
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Debating: Opponent asking for proof to deny his own statements and insists his statements were right at some point of time

This was the gist of the conversation I had recently. Me: I got item x from the capsule. Opp: It's impossible to get item x from the capsule, because such and such. Me: It is possible. I just got ...
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Help wanted - need descriptor for a partcular type/form of argument

I am writing a paper on cognition, and to simplify my discussion I need an adjective or descriptor for particular category of argument as follows: I am arguing for the necessity of a construct with a ...
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1answer
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Making an irrelevant generalization that dilutes the original argument — what's this fallacy?

Let's consider the following dialogue: A: People should be respectful to X. B: No, people should be respectful to Y. Now Y is a broader class than X. In the above example, say, X = "their ...
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What is the name of the fallacy where one implies something is false simply because someone evil supported it?

Creationists sometimes argue that Darwinism is wrong because the Nazis used it as a rationale for their eugenics program. We call it a "genetic fallacy" if we try to claim that a theory is wrong ...
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Assertion generates argument which becomes a fallacy?

When one makes an assertion does it automatically become an argument ?. answer this first before proceeding? if No, where is the Distinction? For example, one says "it is wet on the ground, ...
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Hume's argument for the subjectivity of morality

I am trying to analyze the following argument by Hume in his Treatise of Human Nature: But can there be any difficulty in proving, that vice and virtue are not matters of fact, whose existence we ...
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Are deontologists arguing against virtue ethics, and if so does it matter?

This question got me thinking. If deontology and virtue ethics are not reconcilable but in direct competition with each other, does that mean that in arguing for one we are arguing against the other? ...
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What's the role of certainty in discussions about philosophical positions?

Karl Popper was one of the twentieth century’s preeminent philosophers of science. He was an avowed realist who was dedicated to the correspondence theory of truth. In his seventh decade of life, ...
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75 views

Name of “then you also cannot” pseudo argument

There are two parties, P1 and P2. There are two behaviors B1 and B2, which both parties agree are ethically undesirable or at least questionable. P1 consciously refrains from B1, but not from B2, ...
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Amoral argument for god?

Has there been a push for or the development of an amoral argument for a god that is indifferent to the moral practices of humanity, a sort of anti-moral argument for an indifferent god? This idea ...
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Is there any rational justification to the counterargument “I refuse to answer your question on the basis that it is a hypothetical question?”

This is a common contention that comes up in heated debates. It seems to me like it qualifies as a non sequitur and a red herring. Possibly a different fallacy that I am unaware of. I would like to ...
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Does anyone know any philosophers who engage with (ordinary language) dictionaries in their work?

This may be a strange question, but here's the breakdown. I work on a concept that has received very little philosophical attention. For this reason, I have to consult good old dictionaries (Oxford, ...
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What is the name of the “undeserved profits” fallacy?

I see this type of inference made a lot, for example in the context of distributional justice: A makes an investment. He thinks this investment was a rational decision, until he learns that B also ...
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Is the following statement true, false, or can't be determined? Why?

"If it snows and we don't have school, then (x^3)<0 implies x is negative" (Assume x is a real number).
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What would be the negation of the following statement

"I sometimes work on Monday night" I'm struggling with the word 'sometimes'. Any advice on how to deal with this word?
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What is the fallacy when someone refuses to be specific

A Muslim apologist was debating two Atheists on DW channel in Arabic, the host asked him whether he agrees with "executing atheist apostates". The Muslim apologist knows that apostates are to be ...
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What fallacy is assuming something is the case because of past events

I'm sure this is a simple question. What I am referring to is disbelieving someone on Day 20 because they have lied every day previous to Day 20. Another example is the boy who cried wolf. The 50th ...
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Is using analogies a bad logic reasoning?

When discussing with someone, I like to take the argument they use and put it in another context, to see if it works, and if it doesn't, ask why the argument should be valid in one context but not in ...
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Is there anything wrong with this argument?

The Constitution of the Russian Federation says, in Chapter 1, Article 1: The Russian Federation - Russia is a democratic federal law-bound State with a republican form of government. The ...
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Term for a phrase meant to end an argument.

Is there a word for "a phrase which is intended to end discourse?" such as "That's just the way it is" or "If you don't like it, you can get out" or "Deal with it" These statements are used in ...
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How do the premises support the conclusion in this argument?

The argument below is from the book "A concise introduction to logic". The condition under which many food animals are raised are unhealthy for humans. To keep these animals alive, large quantities ...
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‘The claim that I had an affair with Miss A and that I didn’t father her child is false’

The prosecutor asks, ‘Did you father the child of the murdered victim Miss A?’. Mr. N replies, ‘The claim that I had an affair with Miss A and that I didn’t father her child is false’. In response ...
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Logical fallacy — discrediting someone because they do something you agree with [closed]

A friend posted this tweet: The point of the person's tweet seems to be, "Since Trump is thinking the same way that Kaepernick is thinking, and Kaepernick is right, then Trump is wrong." Honestly, ...
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How to categorize a certain pattern of argumentation?

There happens to be a pattern where a discussant makes a statement about the world and his/her partner retorts with another statement or usually a question that translates the subject onto a ...
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Is anecdotal evidence enough to counter a broad generalization?

Is anecdotal evidence enough to counter a broad generalization? I just had an argument with someone who asked for a scientific study to back up what I was arguing for in order to counter their broad ...
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What is the difference between ampliative, abductive and inductive arguments?

I know all these arguments are kind of the same but what is the border dividing them?
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You disagree with me, therefore you are X. What is the name of this fallacy (manipulative trick)?

Across my life I have encountered this numerous times. One recent example: If you don't think those are a crime, you are not adult enough or logical enough to have a conversation with me. While ...