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Questions tagged [argumentation]

The construction, deconstruction and presentation of arguments for a position;

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4 answers
136 views

Argument Analysis

What are your thoughts? It has been proven that a smoker who quits smoking can reduce their risk of cardiovascular disease to almost that of someone who has never smoked.
2 votes
1 answer
2k views

Cultural relativism - Test 1, Q19, by Mark Shepherd

Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specifi ed culture. According to cultural relativism, it is never true to say simply that a certain kind of behaviour is right ...
2 votes
1 answer
330 views

Is Duff's test of failure just the contrapositive of "D intends a consequence of his action if he acts with the aim of producing that consequence"?

Isn't 2 (Duff's test of failure) just the contrapositive of 1? I can rephrase 2 as 2.1. If the result didn't occur, would D regard himself as having failed in his plan? The logical contrapositive ...
4 votes
2 answers
83 views

If moral statements aren't supposed to be reports of objective facts, does the practice of "fallacy checking" apply to moral arguments?

Maybe this is just a case of Jörgensen’s dilemma, but so I was reading the SEP article about feminist perspectives on argumentation, more specifically this passage: The difficulty some philosophers ...
2 votes
2 answers
73 views

What type of reasoning is this? Abduction, inference to the best explanation, induction?

My mind is responsible for my behavior. Other people are very similar to me biologically. Other people have behaviors similar to mine. Possible explanations: Solipsism says that my mind created other ...
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1 answer
85 views

Explain what the simplicity in this argument is based on

Other people have minds because it is the best explanation for other people's behavior because the existence of other minds is a simpler and more understandable explanation: It does not make me ...
6 votes
3 answers
250 views

What is an argument (in philosophy)?

Closely related (sub)question: is there some way to tell a piece of (spoken, or writen, or...) text that is an argument from one that isn't? If 'yes', how? [Notice the question is not asking "...
0 votes
1 answer
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Give advice on justifying belief in the existence of other minds [duplicate]

Solipsism has the fewest entities (only my mind) and therefore it is the most minimal explanation. Does that make it more likely than the existence of other minds? Because other minds offer billions ...
4 votes
6 answers
448 views

Is the principle of uniformity of nature an abduction or an analogy?

Is the principle of uniformity of nature an abduction or an analogy? To what type of reasoning does the principle of uniformity of nature belong? Is it abduction, analogy, deduction? Here they refer ...
1 vote
2 answers
129 views

Help to understand the use of arguments

If the arguments have the same conclusions, but the premises in one argument contradict the premises in another argument, then these arguments cannot be used together. I am right? For example I have ...
1 vote
1 answer
35 views

What are the main terms and their (relatively) proper definitions that a beginner in metaphysics/philosophy should know of?

I've recently come across many intelligent individuals in the field of metaphysics. Their intellectual prowess impressed me; since their field of expertise informs all other fields, they demonstrated ...
1 vote
3 answers
79 views

Argument analysis question

A simple question for those familiar with argument analysis / formalization. Can you elaborate and explain what is going on in the following two arguments? They appear to lead to opposing conclusions ...
1 vote
1 answer
80 views

How to teach people hypothetical 'what if' scenarios and how to deal with them

Some people can't think of any hypothetical 'what if' situations. They always ask for real life examples. Real life example don't always match with hypothetical scenarios. Then the conversation gets ...
2 votes
2 answers
1k views

Is there a logical fallacy to identity politics?

My understanding of Identity Politics goes as follows: A is a member of/identifies with group X B is not a member of/does not identify with group X A frames challenge S in terms of X Because B doesn’...
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2 answers
70 views

Is it a valid argument?

I wonder if the below argument is a valid or invalid? Premise 1: All the humans can fly Premise 2: I am a human --------------------------------- Conclusion: Therefore, I can fly I also wonder, if ...
35 votes
17 answers
14k views

Why doesn't philosophy have higher standards for its arguments?

Mathematical systems are an excellent model for organizing and conducting thought: In the mathematics community, any argument in support of a conjecture, that deviates from "sound argument" never ...
2 votes
2 answers
143 views

Confused about inductive arguments

I am having trouble understanding inductive arguments, i'm just not sure about how particular observed occurances are supposed to combine into a single definition. Example 1: (1) My friend is a ...
19 votes
19 answers
4k views

If philosophy is based on reason and rationality, then why is there so much disagreement?

If philosophy is based on reason and rationality, then why is there so much disagreement? Is it due primarily to operating with different premises absent consensus on their truth, so that dissenters ...
9 votes
11 answers
3k views

Is there a name for the widespread logical fallacy in which you prove your point by 'eliminating' anyone who contradicts you?

I've encountered this relentlessly in my life. You offer proof that someone is wrong, or even simply state something more obvious than the sun that they don't like, they ban you or do something else ...
3 votes
3 answers
146 views

Doubts about common sense through recourse to an alleged authority

Given is following dialog: A: So you deny that the sun will rise again tomorrow? B: No, I just say we do not know for sure. There are other variants. A: What other variants are there? B: What do I ...
3 votes
2 answers
190 views

Is there a logical argument according to which at least some part of biology isn't scientific?

I have seldom came across the claim, generally in a humorous or ridiculing way, that Botany is "not a real science". My problem While I personally reject this claim, at least in the context of plant ...
5 votes
3 answers
887 views

Malthus's argument on population - Test 1, Q14, by Mark Shepherd

I took a practice test for a law exam and am having difficulty with understanding the logic behind a question. Apologies for the length, but I included the whole question and details for completeness. ...
14 votes
11 answers
1k views

Should reducing and simplifying explanations be a core aspect of Philosophical practice?

I'm an Engineer, and a Computer Programmer. But I repeat myself... For me, my life and breath is getting to the bottom of complex things and rendering an explanation or instantiation (for programs) ...
6 votes
2 answers
3k views

How does one differentiate epistemological and ontological claims?

I'm taking an introductory philosophy course and I find it fascinating. I can't really figure out an assignment though because I'm a bit foggy on what the difference between ontological and ...
2 votes
1 answer
68 views

Precise definition of valid argument using model theory

In philosophy 101, I learned that a valid argument is any argument that satisfies this property: if all of its premises are true, then its conclusion must hold true. Now, I am taking a class on ...
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3 answers
131 views

Are perceptual arguments convincing and good?

Are the perceptual arguments for the existence of other minds convincing and good? https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/other-minds/#PercKnowOtheMind https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/other-minds/#...
1 vote
1 answer
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A question on contrapositives and predicates

So I am a freshman taking an intro class to logic. And the question started off from a class exercise we've got which asked us to identify the covering generalization for the following conditional ...
3 votes
3 answers
151 views

Do arguments arising from probability convincingly argue a mass human extinction event in the near future? [closed]

One such argument is the Doomsday argument which is taken seriously by a number of academics. But more simply, if we look at the modern population trajectory, it's something of an exponential curve. ...
4 votes
3 answers
584 views

Why is Diogenes the Cynic's solution to Zeno's Dichotomy Paradox insufficient?

According to Wikipedia's discussion of Zeno's Dichotomy paradox (emphasis mine), According to Simplicius, Diogenes the Cynic said nothing upon hearing Zeno's arguments, but stood up and walked, in ...
16 votes
5 answers
5k views

Is there a name for the argumentative tactic where you play dumb and ask for extreme simplification?

My day job is research in economics. In economics seminar culture, a common way to demolish the speaker is to play dumb and say "I don't understand what you are saying", implying that the ...
5 votes
2 answers
584 views

Are all non-deductive arguments inductive?

I am having troubles with understanding this question. Can someone give me an example/insight about where to go from here?
1 vote
4 answers
210 views

How strong is the argument for quantum mind theory?

I know little about philosophy and I've been reading into consciousness. From an uneducated view, David Pearce's argument seems strong. https://www.biointelligence-explosion.com/parable.html What ...
-2 votes
2 answers
135 views

What is a philosophical proposition?

There seems to be confusion on this exchange as to what constitutes a proposition in philosophy. This seems to extend to the burden of proof. The classical burden of proof is "onus probandi ...
0 votes
0 answers
61 views

What kind of rhetorical device is 'splaining?

It is quite common for people to respond to an issue or question with the first thing that comes to mind, framed as a convincing explanation. When it appears to be a self-serving or unwarranted ...
2 votes
1 answer
59 views

Are transcendental and indispensability arguments reciprocally structured?

This question occurred to me in the course of addressing a recent question about what counts as evidence in philosophy. There, I offered that transcendental arguments are structurally akin to ...
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4 answers
493 views

Is my analysis of Dawkins' fallacies correct?

I have been analyzing arguments made by prominent atheists and looking for logical fallacies. I am new at this. Are my analyses correct? From: “The All Time best arguments against religion/faith #2 (...
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4 answers
452 views

Viciously circular arguments against philosophy

Science seeks to explain natural events with natural causes. The Turing hypothesis does this. Beyond the bounds of science, there is no objective argument for anything really, just philosophical ...
5 votes
6 answers
618 views

What constitutes evidence in philosophy?

I have noticed an apparent confusion when posing and answering questions as to what constitutes evidence in philosophy. Especially in scientifically-related areas, I often cite scientific evidence ...
2 votes
2 answers
242 views

What does the IBE argument (the best explanation argument) look like in favor of the existence of other minds?

I have read several versions of the IBE argument for the existence of other minds. But I got a little confused. Now I'm not sure I know what it should sound like. How should the IBE argument (argument ...
6 votes
3 answers
1k views

Do some philosophical questions tend to entertain vacuous ideas?

Empty, inane, devoid of value. This is a dictionary definition of the word "vacuous". Are vacuous ideas worthy of consideration? I mean no offence, but I fail to see the sensible intent ...
3 votes
9 answers
3k views

What is the burden of proof? Has this principle ever been challenged?

I have been surprised to find that some people doubt this principle. Onus probandi incumbit ei qui dicit, non ei qui negat - the burden of proof lies with the speaker, not with the one who negates. I ...
0 votes
4 answers
210 views

Is reason under challenge? [closed]

I find the resurgence in the new century of pseudoscience, religious extremism, and irrationalism disturbing. Reason was pre-eminent throughout the previous two centuries. Is reason being seriously ...
3 votes
7 answers
677 views

Is it plausible to believe in the existence of other minds if all arguments have been criticized?

I believe that other people also have minds. To believe in other minds, arguments are needed. All arguments in favor of the existence of other minds are subject to strong criticism. So it turns out ...
1 vote
1 answer
183 views

Should proofs of God involve the infinitary language ℒ(∞,∞)?

If God is an infinite being (per Scotus, say), and if no finite number of steps in an argument is adequate to the scope of the divine majesty, then the strictures of monadic theism aside (God as a ...
3 votes
2 answers
314 views

The Likelyhood Principle and Baysean Statistics

I am reading Kotzen's paper Selection Bias in Likelihood Arguments. The author takes the following principle as a starting point: I'm confused as to how to formalize this notion in terms of Bayesian ...
2 votes
0 answers
55 views

How to best develop writing and argumentation skills on a philosophy self-study track?

I am about to embark on a journey of Philosophy self-study. I have a curriculum I want to pursue, covering all majour branches of philosophy. I also have a reading list which includes set texts, text ...
2 votes
1 answer
70 views

Examples of situations where explaining the situation destabilizes the mind [closed]

Could someone please provide, using logic, or some other reasoning or portrayal, an example of a situation where explaining the situation destabilizes the mind? Thank you.
5 votes
2 answers
2k views

What is the name of this fallacy: "You don't have an explanation for x but I do, so I'm correct and you are wrong"?

I hope this is the most correct stack exchange to ask this question. What is the name of the logical fallacy that follows: "You don't have an explanation for x but I do, so I'm correct and you are ...
0 votes
1 answer
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What is the justification of a complex dilemma?

7.8 The Dilemma in Copi's Introduction to Logic says: Complex dilemma: An argument consisting of (a) a disjunction, (b) two conditional premises linked by a conjunction, and (c) a conclusion that ...
1 vote
0 answers
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How should an argument containing an exceptive proposition be tested?

IX. Exceptive Propositions in 7.3 Translating Categorical Propositions into Standard Form in Copi's Introduction to Logic says: Because exceptive propositions are not categorical propositions but ...

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