Questions tagged [argumentation]

The construction, deconstruction and presentation of arguments for a position;

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What fallacy is committed when one argues that a conclusion is false simply because the person arguing it has lied before?

For example, suppose I were to make the claim: President Trump says climate change is false. President Trump has lied before; therefore, climate change is true.
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Can a fact rely on an inference?

A syllogism with two facts as premises leads to a deduced fact: Premise 1: The sky is above my head (fact) Premise 2: I look up and I see blue (fact) Conclusion: The sky is blue (...
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Help wanted - need descriptor for a partcular type/form of argument

I am writing a paper on cognition, and to simplify my discussion I need an adjective or descriptor for particular category of argument as follows: I am arguing for the necessity of a construct with a ...
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287 views

Analogy between an unknown in an argument, and a contradiction in the principle of explosion

Context I like to argue that, since we do not know what consciousness is, we can not specify what it can not do. Therefore we can not state we can't do something now, nor in the future. Up to the ...
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What to do when encountering a logical fallacy?

If I were in an argument, and my opponent was to use perhaps ad hominem and I caught it and pointed it out, what purpose does it serve? May I dismiss his/her argument or can I only acknowledge it as ...
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Is one rationally justified in assuming a dominant philosophical position that one has some reasons to doubt?

If one has insufficient reasons for rejecting a dominant philosophical position but sufficient reasons to doubt that the dominant philosophical position is unproblematic, to what extent is one ...
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Why is argument by analogy invalid?

There is a well known fallacy called the "argument by analogy" fallacy. As I understand it, the fallacy occurs in a situation where someone makes a reasonable comparison between two situations and ...
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288 views

What are some counter examples to Kant's moral philosophy about doing the right thing?

Kant believes that one way to find out what the right thing to do is to think what would happen if everyone followed the principle you’re following when you perform that action. What are some ...
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Assertion generates argument which becomes a fallacy?

When one makes an assertion does it automatically become an argument ?. answer this first before proceeding? if No, where is the Distinction? For example, one says "it is wet on the ground, ...
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Debating: Opponent asking for proof to deny his own statements and insists his statements were right at some point of time

This was the gist of the conversation I had recently. Me: I got item x from the capsule. Opp: It's impossible to get item x from the capsule, because such and such. Me: It is possible. I just got ...
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120 views

Amoral argument for god?

Has there been a push for or the development of an amoral argument for a god that is indifferent to the moral practices of humanity, a sort of anti-moral argument for an indifferent god? This idea ...
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‘The claim that I had an affair with Miss A and that I didn’t father her child is false’

The prosecutor asks, ‘Did you father the child of the murdered victim Miss A?’. Mr. N replies, ‘The claim that I had an affair with Miss A and that I didn’t father her child is false’. In response ...
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What is the name of the fallacy where one implies something is false simply because someone evil supported it?

Creationists sometimes argue that Darwinism is wrong because the Nazis used it as a rationale for their eugenics program. We call it a "genetic fallacy" if we try to claim that a theory is wrong ...
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92 views

Problematic conditional argument: what is the logical form and is it valid?

I'm trying to reconstruct an argument. The argument is not about what should or shouldn't be done. As you can see the antecedent is never being picked up in the next premise. So it's just a sequence ...
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53 views

Making an irrelevant generalization that dilutes the original argument — what's this fallacy?

Let's consider the following dialogue: A: People should be respectful to X. B: No, people should be respectful to Y. Now Y is a broader class than X. In the above example, say, X = "their ...
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What is 'fence sitting' in an essay context?

I asked about the propriety and validity of fence sitting here, but the many instructive answers now advance a new question: what is it exactly? It is fence-sitting only if you say that they do ...
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Why is Modus Ponens valid?

I am having trouble understanding what defines Entailment operator. On Mathoverflow I posted this question on what I perceive to be paradox of entailment. Consider: Modus Ponens: P therefore Q P ...
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Hume's argument for the subjectivity of morality

I am trying to analyze the following argument by Hume in his Treatise of Human Nature: But can there be any difficulty in proving, that vice and virtue are not matters of fact, whose existence we ...
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Are deontologists arguing against virtue ethics, and if so does it matter?

This question got me thinking. If deontology and virtue ethics are not reconcilable but in direct competition with each other, does that mean that in arguing for one we are arguing against the other? ...
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What's the role of certainty in discussions about philosophical positions?

Karl Popper was one of the twentieth century’s preeminent philosophers of science. He was an avowed realist who was dedicated to the correspondence theory of truth. In his seventh decade of life, ...
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Name of “then you also cannot” pseudo argument

There are two parties, P1 and P2. There are two behaviors B1 and B2, which both parties agree are ethically undesirable or at least questionable. P1 consciously refrains from B1, but not from B2, ...
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Is there any rational justification to the counterargument “I refuse to answer your question on the basis that it is a hypothetical question?”

This is a common contention that comes up in heated debates. It seems to me like it qualifies as a non sequitur and a red herring. Possibly a different fallacy that I am unaware of. I would like to ...
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Is there a flaw in Spinoza's argument about gender inequality?

Spinoza, the 17th century philosopher wrote in his Political Treatise (Chapter XI): "If by nature women were equal to men, and were equally distinguished by force of character and ability, in which ...
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Does anyone know any philosophers who engage with (ordinary language) dictionaries in their work?

This may be a strange question, but here's the breakdown. I work on a concept that has received very little philosophical attention. For this reason, I have to consult good old dictionaries (Oxford, ...
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What is the name of the “undeserved profits” fallacy?

I see this type of inference made a lot, for example in the context of distributional justice: A makes an investment. He thinks this investment was a rational decision, until he learns that B also ...
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reductio ad absurdum vs. argument by lack of imagination

A reductio ad absurdum is a correct way to argue. An argument by lack of imagination is an informal fallacy. But if a reductio ad absurdum is applied outside of a highly formalized setting like ...
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Is the following statement true, false, or can't be determined? Why?

"If it snows and we don't have school, then (x^3)<0 implies x is negative" (Assume x is a real number).
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What would be the negation of the following statement

"I sometimes work on Monday night" I'm struggling with the word 'sometimes'. Any advice on how to deal with this word?
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What is the fallacy when someone refuses to be specific

A Muslim apologist was debating two Atheists on DW channel in Arabic, the host asked him whether he agrees with "executing atheist apostates". The Muslim apologist knows that apostates are to be ...
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What fallacy is assuming something is the case because of past events

I'm sure this is a simple question. What I am referring to is disbelieving someone on Day 20 because they have lied every day previous to Day 20. Another example is the boy who cried wolf. The 50th ...
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397 views

The relationship of women's right to abortion and men's duty of child support

There is a quote from Karen DeCrow, which you can find below. The courts have properly determined that a man should neither be able to force a woman to have an abortion nor to prevent her from ...
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How have philosophers tried to argue for qualia?

What is the difference between the intuition that there is something it is like, qualitative experience, and faith in it? Is it possible to convince someone who doesn't believe there is something it ...
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Why is the darapti syllogism invalid?

I found the following exposition of darapti on wikipedia: All squares are rectangles. (MaP) All squares are rhombuses. (MaS) ∴ Some rhombuses are rectangles. (SiP) As far as I can see, this is ...
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Fallacy on invalidation and conclusions

have recently been studying the philosophy of reasoning and have thought of these questions that I am having a bit of trouble answering. If an argument commits a fallacy, it is invalid. That is true, ...
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Is using analogies a bad logic reasoning?

When discussing with someone, I like to take the argument they use and put it in another context, to see if it works, and if it doesn't, ask why the argument should be valid in one context but not in ...
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213 views

Why is Jackson’s Knowledge Argument (“Mary’s room”) widely accepted as being self-consistent in its premises?

I imagine you are already familiar with Frank Jackson’s Knowledge Argument, but for reference, here it is again, as originally presented: Mary is a brilliant scientist who is, for whatever reason, ...
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How to differentiate co-premises from chains of reasoning in an argument map?

How do you differentiate co-premises from chains of reasoning in an argument map? For example, consider the following argument from our studying materials: "Just after the Second World War, Germans ...
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Is there a name for the fallacy where you pretend some universal fact is particular evidence for your claim?

I feel like this fallacy should have a name. Here is the toy example. Alice and Bob have one loaf of bread between them. For some reason only one of them is allowed eat the bread; they cannot share ...
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What perceptual error is this?

Consider this scenario: Andy believes all gay people are "flamboyant", because all gay people he has encountered in the past have met that perception. In reality, Andy has met many gay people ...
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Is there anything wrong with this argument?

The Constitution of the Russian Federation says, in Chapter 1, Article 1: The Russian Federation - Russia is a democratic federal law-bound State with a republican form of government. The ...
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What fallacy is this: “The poor worry. The rich don't worry. If you want to be rich, don't worry”

If one were to reason that most poor people worry about money and most UBER-wealthy people don't worry about money, and they want to be UBER-wealthy, than they should simply not worry about money... ...
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Is argument that two theories are equally valid because I am not an expert “argument ad ignoratum”

I am trying to get to grips with an argument with a friend, whereby he argues that because he does not have the full facts or because one theory is not 100% proven means that both competing theories ...
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Term for a phrase meant to end an argument.

Is there a word for "a phrase which is intended to end discourse?" such as "That's just the way it is" or "If you don't like it, you can get out" or "Deal with it" These statements are used in ...
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Why do some philosophers write in numbered paragraphs?

Hegel, Nietzsche, Wittgenstein, and Anscombe all write mostly in numbered paragraphs. (Of course Hegel and Nietzsche have chapters. And many of Hegel's lectures aren't written in this way, but both ...
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331 views

Is this an example of the fallacy of affirming the consequent?

Would this be an example of the "fallacy of affirming the consequent"? If suspect X did the deed, then we would find evidence A, B, C and D. And, yes, look, here is evidence A, B, C and D. So ...
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How do the premises support the conclusion in this argument?

The argument below is from the book "A concise introduction to logic". The condition under which many food animals are raised are unhealthy for humans. To keep these animals alive, large quantities ...
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Is there a term for this 'disclaimer' technique used in statements?

This is a pretty common type of statement that's seen frequently on internet posts and discussions, but I was curious if there was a term for it. The statement starts off with a disclaimer which is ...
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Logical fallacy — discrediting someone because they do something you agree with [closed]

A friend posted this tweet: The point of the person's tweet seems to be, "Since Trump is thinking the same way that Kaepernick is thinking, and Kaepernick is right, then Trump is wrong." Honestly, ...
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Can rational argument really change someone's opinion? [closed]

I apologize in advance if this sounds more like an opinion piece than a question, but I think it might deserve some discussion here. Learning about rationality, fallacies, psychology and ...
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How to categorize a certain pattern of argumentation?

There happens to be a pattern where a discussant makes a statement about the world and his/her partner retorts with another statement or usually a question that translates the subject onto a ...