Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [argumentation]

The construction, deconstruction and presentation of arguments for a position;

2
votes
1answer
264 views

What are some counter examples to Kant's moral philosophy about doing the right thing?

Kant believes that one way to find out what the right thing to do is to think what would happen if everyone followed the principle you’re following when you perform that action. What are some ...
1
vote
2answers
720 views

What is 'fence sitting' in an essay context?

I asked about the propriety and validity of fence sitting here, but the many instructive answers now advance a new question: what is it exactly? It is fence-sitting only if you say that they do ...
9
votes
4answers
2k views

Why is Modus Ponens valid?

I am having trouble understanding what defines Entailment operator. On Mathoverflow I posted this question on what I perceive to be paradox of entailment. Consider: Modus Ponens: P therefore Q P ...
5
votes
0answers
69 views

Hume's argument for the subjectivity of morality

I am trying to analyze the following argument by Hume in his Treatise of Human Nature: But can there be any difficulty in proving, that vice and virtue are not matters of fact, whose existence we ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Are deontologists arguing against virtue ethics, and if so does it matter?

This question got me thinking. If deontology and virtue ethics are not reconcilable but in direct competition with each other, does that mean that in arguing for one we are arguing against the other? ...
1
vote
1answer
85 views

Amoral argument for god?

Has there been a push for or the development of an amoral argument for a god that is indifferent to the moral practices of humanity, a sort of anti-moral argument for an indifferent god? This idea ...
3
votes
4answers
123 views

What's the role of certainty in discussions about philosophical positions?

Karl Popper was one of the twentieth century’s preeminent philosophers of science. He was an avowed realist who was dedicated to the correspondence theory of truth. In his seventh decade of life, ...
1
vote
1answer
65 views

Name of “then you also cannot” pseudo argument

There are two parties, P1 and P2. There are two behaviors B1 and B2, which both parties agree are ethically undesirable or at least questionable. P1 consciously refrains from B1, but not from B2, ...
0
votes
4answers
187 views

Is there any rational justification to the counterargument “I refuse to answer your question on the basis that it is a hypothetical question?”

This is a common contention that comes up in heated debates. It seems to me like it qualifies as a non sequitur and a red herring. Possibly a different fallacy that I am unaware of. I would like to ...
15
votes
5answers
2k views

Is there a flaw in Spinoza's argument about gender inequality?

Spinoza, the 17th century philosopher wrote in his Political Treatise (Chapter XI): "If by nature women were equal to men, and were equally distinguished by force of character and ability, in which ...
3
votes
2answers
133 views

Does anyone know any philosophers who engage with (ordinary language) dictionaries in their work?

This may be a strange question, but here's the breakdown. I work on a concept that has received very little philosophical attention. For this reason, I have to consult good old dictionaries (Oxford, ...
2
votes
1answer
76 views

What is the name of the “undeserved profits” fallacy?

I see this type of inference made a lot, for example in the context of distributional justice: A makes an investment. He thinks this investment was a rational decision, until he learns that B also ...
3
votes
1answer
129 views

reductio ad absurdum vs. argument by lack of imagination

A reductio ad absurdum is a correct way to argue. An argument by lack of imagination is an informal fallacy. But if a reductio ad absurdum is applied outside of a highly formalized setting like ...
1
vote
2answers
3k views

Is the following statement true, false, or can't be determined? Why?

"If it snows and we don't have school, then (x^3)<0 implies x is negative" (Assume x is a real number).
-1
votes
1answer
61 views

What would be the negation of the following statement

"I sometimes work on Monday night" I'm struggling with the word 'sometimes'. Any advice on how to deal with this word?
3
votes
2answers
157 views

What is the fallacy when someone refuses to be specific

A Muslim apologist was debating two Atheists on DW channel in Arabic, the host asked him whether he agrees with "executing atheist apostates". The Muslim apologist knows that apostates are to be ...
14
votes
10answers
8k views

What fallacy is assuming something is the case because of past events

I'm sure this is a simple question. What I am referring to is disbelieving someone on Day 20 because they have lied every day previous to Day 20. Another example is the boy who cried wolf. The 50th ...
7
votes
3answers
379 views

The relationship of women's right to abortion and men's duty of child support

There is a quote from Karen DeCrow, which you can find below. The courts have properly determined that a man should neither be able to force a woman to have an abortion nor to prevent her from ...
6
votes
3answers
236 views

How have philosophers tried to argue for qualia?

What is the difference between the intuition that there is something it is like, qualitative experience, and faith in it? Is it possible to convince someone who doesn't believe there is something it ...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

Why is the darapti syllogism invalid?

I found the following exposition of darapti on wikipedia: All squares are rectangles. (MaP) All squares are rhombuses. (MaS) ∴ Some rhombuses are rectangles. (SiP) As far as I can see, this is ...
6
votes
1answer
831 views

Fallacy on invalidation and conclusions

have recently been studying the philosophy of reasoning and have thought of these questions that I am having a bit of trouble answering. If an argument commits a fallacy, it is invalid. That is true, ...
14
votes
4answers
1k views

Is using analogies a bad logic reasoning?

When discussing with someone, I like to take the argument they use and put it in another context, to see if it works, and if it doesn't, ask why the argument should be valid in one context but not in ...
1
vote
1answer
194 views

Why is Jackson’s Knowledge Argument (“Mary’s room”) widely accepted as being self-consistent in its premises?

I imagine you are already familiar with Frank Jackson’s Knowledge Argument, but for reference, here it is again, as originally presented: Mary is a brilliant scientist who is, for whatever reason, ...
2
votes
1answer
120 views

How to differentiate co-premises from chains of reasoning in an argument map?

How do you differentiate co-premises from chains of reasoning in an argument map? For example, consider the following argument from our studying materials: "Just after the Second World War, Germans ...
4
votes
1answer
182 views

Is there a name for the fallacy where you pretend some universal fact is particular evidence for your claim?

I feel like this fallacy should have a name. Here is the toy example. Alice and Bob have one loaf of bread between them. For some reason only one of them is allowed eat the bread; they cannot share ...
4
votes
3answers
445 views

What perceptual error is this?

Consider this scenario: Andy believes all gay people are "flamboyant", because all gay people he has encountered in the past have met that perception. In reality, Andy has met many gay people ...
0
votes
1answer
50 views

Is there anything wrong with this argument?

The Constitution of the Russian Federation says, in Chapter 1, Article 1: The Russian Federation - Russia is a democratic federal law-bound State with a republican form of government. The ...
3
votes
4answers
905 views

What fallacy is this: “The poor worry. The rich don't worry. If you want to be rich, don't worry”

If one were to reason that most poor people worry about money and most UBER-wealthy people don't worry about money, and they want to be UBER-wealthy, than they should simply not worry about money... ...
4
votes
4answers
281 views

Is argument that two theories are equally valid because I am not an expert “argument ad ignoratum”

I am trying to get to grips with an argument with a friend, whereby he argues that because he does not have the full facts or because one theory is not 100% proven means that both competing theories ...
1
vote
1answer
37 views

Term for a phrase meant to end an argument.

Is there a word for "a phrase which is intended to end discourse?" such as "That's just the way it is" or "If you don't like it, you can get out" or "Deal with it" These statements are used in ...
2
votes
2answers
182 views

Why do some philosophers write in numbered paragraphs?

Hegel, Nietzsche, Wittgenstein, and Anscombe all write mostly in numbered paragraphs. (Of course Hegel and Nietzsche have chapters. And many of Hegel's lectures aren't written in this way, but both ...
3
votes
3answers
321 views

Is this an example of the fallacy of affirming the consequent?

Would this be an example of the "fallacy of affirming the consequent"? If suspect X did the deed, then we would find evidence A, B, C and D. And, yes, look, here is evidence A, B, C and D. So ...
4
votes
3answers
70 views

How do the premises support the conclusion in this argument?

The argument below is from the book "A concise introduction to logic". The condition under which many food animals are raised are unhealthy for humans. To keep these animals alive, large quantities ...
1
vote
3answers
95 views

Is there a term for this 'disclaimer' technique used in statements?

This is a pretty common type of statement that's seen frequently on internet posts and discussions, but I was curious if there was a term for it. The statement starts off with a disclaimer which is ...
2
votes
0answers
60 views

‘The claim that I had an affair with Miss A and that I didn’t father her child is false’

The prosecutor asks, ‘Did you father the child of the murdered victim Miss A?’. Mr. N replies, ‘The claim that I had an affair with Miss A and that I didn’t father her child is false’. In response ...
1
vote
3answers
126 views

Logical fallacy — discrediting someone because they do something you agree with [closed]

A friend posted this tweet: The point of the person's tweet seems to be, "Since Trump is thinking the same way that Kaepernick is thinking, and Kaepernick is right, then Trump is wrong." Honestly, ...
1
vote
1answer
163 views

Can rational argument really change someone's opinion? [closed]

I apologize in advance if this sounds more like an opinion piece than a question, but I think it might deserve some discussion here. Learning about rationality, fallacies, psychology and ...
1
vote
1answer
36 views

How to categorize a certain pattern of argumentation?

There happens to be a pattern where a discussant makes a statement about the world and his/her partner retorts with another statement or usually a question that translates the subject onto a ...
4
votes
2answers
108 views

Is anecdotal evidence enough to counter a broad generalization?

Is anecdotal evidence enough to counter a broad generalization? I just had an argument with someone who asked for a scientific study to back up what I was arguing for in order to counter their broad ...
1
vote
0answers
131 views

What is the difference between ampliative, abductive and inductive arguments?

I know all these arguments are kind of the same but what is the border dividing them?
1
vote
2answers
124 views

You disagree with me, therefore you are X. What is the name of this fallacy (manipulative trick)?

Across my life I have encountered this numerous times. One recent example: If you don't think those are a crime, you are not adult enough or logical enough to have a conversation with me. While ...
7
votes
3answers
167 views

If a claim is supported by a valid authority does the burden of proof shift?

Say person 1 believes x because a valid authority said so. Person 2 is skeptical of said claim and asks person 1 to present the evidence that supports the claim. Person 1 says he doesn't have to and ...
1
vote
3answers
206 views

Someone said argument A, the other heard argument A', is that a fallacy?

Here's a simple dialogue between me and my wife. Wife: why don't you clean the cup after using it? Me: I always clean after me whatever I use. Wife: You're speaking about something else. That wasn'...
7
votes
4answers
208 views

Physicalism versus dualism: is it reasonable to assign a burden of proof to one party?

I've been watching some video lectures online, and in some of the videos, the professor argues essentially as follows: Both the dualist and the physicalist believe in the body. This is status quo....
1
vote
1answer
264 views

Is this passage about different reading speeds an argument?

The pace of reading, clearly, depends entirely upon the reader. He may read as slowly or as rapidly as he can or wishes to read. If he does not understand something, he may stop and reread it, or ...
0
votes
1answer
51 views

no matter how large the environment one considers

Consider the following passage: (1) No matter how large the environment one considers, the origin of life cannot be a random process. (2) Troops of monkey thundering away at random on typewriters ...
6
votes
3answers
211 views

Logical fallacy: when you know the outcome, so you cannot see any other possible ex ante prediction

Is there a term for this type of logical fallacy? One person asserts that theory A would predict outcome X. We have observed, however, that outcome Y occurred and not outcome X. The first person ...
3
votes
2answers
812 views

How do you argue without evidence?

Let's say you come to some sort of debate and you forgot to do your fact checking. What sorts methods could you use to argue a major point, e.g. gun control, without specific facts? I'm thinking ...
2
votes
2answers
36 views

Is it possible to define argument validity as a formula?

Let A, B and C be propositions. Define ARG(A, B, C) as the following argument: A. B. Therefore, C. My goal is to create a formula whose truth value is equivalent to "ARG(A, B, C) is ...
4
votes
4answers
676 views

A supposedly new argument for the existence of God?

I have come across a supposedly new argument for the existence of God, I would be interested in whether this has been discussed in literature. Is there any resemblance to Plantinga's EAAN? The ...