Questions tagged [argumentation]

The construction, deconstruction and presentation of arguments for a position;

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What is the difference between inductive and abductive reasoning? [duplicate]

I would deeply appreciate it if you would answer this question, since I do not know or understand exactly the difference between inductive reasoning and abductive reasoning, which is a problem for me ...
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Where is the fallacy in Seth Yalcin's counterexample to the modus tollens?

Where is the fallacy, do you think, in Seth Yalcin’s argument (2012) that the Modus Tollens is not a generally valid form of argument? Seth Yalcin’s counterexample to the Modus Tollens (MT) https://...
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Does the Following a proposition Hold?

Would you consider the following assertion to be valid or fallacious: No one is entitled to complain about feedback received if he or she asks for honest advice
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Deep Diagramming of This Excerpt

In my Opinion, the deep diagramming for this argument should look like this (3) -> (4) -> (2) ( (5) + (6) )-> (2) (2) -> (1) ( (8) + (9) ) -> (1) (11) -> (10) -> (1) What are your opinions on ...
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Heraclitean, Parmenides, and Aristotelian change? Is there an alternative?

Dear philosophy stack exchange, I've been considering of late the problem of change as presented by Heraclities and Parmenides as well as the supposed solution to the problem by Aristotle himself. I ...
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Is this argument about the disjuncive syllogism valid and sound?

If some arguments of the form disjunctive syllogism have false premises, then some arguments with false premises are deductively valid. Some arguments of the form disjunctive syllogism have false ...
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Is reductio ad absurdum a fallacy?

If Miles told Frank: “Copying a DVD is stealing” And Frank's response to Miles: “if copying a DVD is stealing, then, by that logic, taking a photo of someone is kidnapping” And Miles Response is: “...
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Is there an onus on the critic to provide an alternative solution?

In many situations, when someone criticises a procedure, or a policy, a common response is something like "yeah, we know it's crap, but you're not presenting an alternative solution, so shut up". ...
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better definition of induction

Consider this argument: I saw him hit the lady with a stone in the head. The lady will likely die. For me this is inductive argument. But I got impression some places define inductive argument such ...
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Do inconsistent premises in an argument hurt a person's case while they try to defend something they believe in?

Do inconsistent premises in an argument hurt a person's case while they try to defend something they believe in because their statements contradict each other?
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What are some non-traditional arguments for God's existence?

By traditional arguments, I mean argument widely and traditionally used for existence of God like: Cosmological argument, Teleological argument, Moral argument, Ontological argument, Pragmatic ...
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What are some counter examples to Kant's moral philosophy about doing the right thing?

Kant believes that one way to find out what the right thing to do is to think what would happen if everyone followed the principle you’re following when you perform that action. What are some ...
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Assistance in interpreting this excerpt concerning political philosophy

The article comes from "The Rhetorical Functions of Slogans: Classifications and Characteristics" by Robert E. Denton. The title should give away what the entire article is about. I've come to the ...
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What fallacy in Pascal's Wager allows replacing God with the devil?

I wanted to know the name of the fallacy or fallacies the Pascal's Wager in the sense that it can be applied to motivate one's belief in many things. A similar argument to the original Wager can be ...
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Is it possible for an argument to be logically valid but not truth-functionally valid?

Truth-functionally valid: there is no truth value assignment for which the premises (of an argument) are true yet the conclusion is false. I am told that there are arguments which are logically valid ...
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Looking for a term about the structure of an argument

In Aquinas's Summa Theologica I q. 76 a. 2, "Whether the intellectual principle is multiplied according to the number of bodies?," he begins his argument that there must many intellects by shortly ...
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Is there a logical fallacy to identity politics?

My understanding of Identity Politics goes as follows: A is a member of/identifies with group X B is not a member of/does not identify with group X A frames challenge S in terms of X Because B doesn’...
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What is the difference between the Narrative Fallacy and the Post-hoc Rationalization?

Or are they the same thing? Personally I fail to see the difference between these two, but I want to be sure. EDIT Narrative fallacy "Metaphors and stories are far more potent (alas) than ideas; ...
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The relationship of women's right to abortion and men's duty of child support

There is a quote from Karen DeCrow, which you can find below. The courts have properly determined that a man should neither be able to force a woman to have an abortion nor to prevent her from ...
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Is this a logical fallacy or simply a bad argument?

In my English class today, we were talking about thesis statements. One of the students said that one of the thesis statements didn't sound right; its syntax sounded odd. However, my teacher said that ...
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Are Pathos, Logos, and Ethos equally valid?

The three main ways of reasoning are Pathos, Ethos, and Logos. I have tended to see Pathos as inferior to Ethos and Logos because it appears to rely more on emotions than on facts. But does it really ?...
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Is it true that an argument cannot be both inductive and cogent?

I have been asked a question in class where we would need to pick out the false statement from a given set of options. The problem is that I am not really sure why my answer was wrong? Here is the ...
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Fallacy or Just Flawed Thinking?

I am just wondering if a specific fallacy applies to this kind of situation. A experiences an event X, which we later note seems correlated with Y - but not causally. Upon telling A that X ...
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What is the name of the fallacy involving white and black swans?

If one argues: I have seen only white swans, therefore there are no black swans. What would this fallacy be called?
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What undergraduate-level books focus on analogical arguments?

I want books that dive deeper into nothing but analogies. I went to the library and riffled the books in the Bibliography of SEP's Analogy and Analogical Reasoning, but none were introductions at an ...
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Which fallacy: Thinking everything someone does in a discussion that's wrong is a fallacy?

There are a lot of questions about which fallacy something is on this site. Many times, the argument in the question is not actually a fallacy, but something that the questioner doesn't like/agree ...
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Is there a philosophical term for an invalid argument based on extreme (and irrelevant) comparisons to Nazis?

I use Nazis as a catch-all for any systemic atrocity that egregiously violates human rights. I know the appeal is a false equivalence to Nazis and my argument. However, I notice that often times when ...
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Is one rationally justified in assuming a dominant philosophical position that one has some reasons to doubt?

If one has insufficient reasons for rejecting a dominant philosophical position but sufficient reasons to doubt that the dominant philosophical position is unproblematic, to what extent is one ...
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Help understanding deductive arguments

I am currently finding it hard to understand deductive arguments. I am taking a module called 'Effective Reasoning'. I've been finding it so hard to understand some things (as simple as this). I ...
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Rhetoric: How to frame redundancy in an argument as deficiency?

How can we categorize redundancy in an argument as deficiency? That is, weaken the argument because of its redundancy? Suppose X is an argument that boasts coherence and clarity, but it has various ...
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Hume's argument for the subjectivity of morality

I am trying to analyze the following argument by Hume in his Treatise of Human Nature: But can there be any difficulty in proving, that vice and virtue are not matters of fact, whose existence we ...
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Is metaphysics justified in its conclusions?

I'm curious of the modern meta-philosophical viewpoints on metaphysical knowledge. That is, is it possible for arm-chair theorizing or rational pure thought alone to gain true knowledge about any ...
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Can knowledge about argumentation be sufficient for philosophical logic without too symbolic or mathematical concepts?

The most important element for expression of truth is trough an argument, with premises and conclusion. Argumentation requires to avoid fallacies and adhere to the truth. However logic if treated as a ...
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What is the logical distinction between “the same” and “equal to?”

We all understand that Given A = C, and B = C, Then A = B. However, A is not “the same as” B. Example: A is the question, “What animals have feathers and can fly?” B is the question, “What was the ...
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Is Duff's test of failure just the contrapositive of “D intends a consequence of his action if he acts with the aim of producing that consequence”?

Isn't 2 (Duff's test of failure) just the contrapositive of 1? I can rephrase 2 as 2.1. If the result didn't occur, would D regard himself as having failed in his plan? The logical contrapositive ...
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Looking for existing discourse on the category of fallacies exemplified by “paradox of tolerance”

Popper coined the phrase "paradox of tolerance" when discussing how unlimited tolerance is self-contradictory (paradoxical) in that it precludes self-preservation (resisting intolerance). The seeming ...
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Amoral argument for god?

Has there been a push for or the development of an amoral argument for a god that is indifferent to the moral practices of humanity, a sort of anti-moral argument for an indifferent god? This idea ...
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Suppose you know the premises of an argument are inconsistent. Do you have to do a truth table to know whether it is valid or invalid?

Suppose you know the premises of an argument are inconsistent. Do you have to do a truth table to know whether it is valid or invalid?
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Demonstrate that the following argument is invalid

Some politicians are Democrats. Hillary Clinton is a politician. /⸫ Hillary Clinton is a Democrat. The argument's form is: Some A are B. x is A. /⸫ x is B. [where 'A' and 'B' stand for groups of ...
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Teaching my son the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning

My son has shown an increased ability to grasp complex ideas, and one that he recently brought up was logic, more specifically the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning. What would be ...
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Diagram the following argument and explain which premises it is using such as intermediate, independent, or joint

① We should increase funding to public colleges and universities. First of all, ② as funding has decreased, students have had to shoulder a larger share of the financial burden of attending college, ...
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Reasoning for deductive inference?

I got a quiz today in my classroom. I need to say True or False to the following: Deductive inferences are typically based on unfounded assumptions. For the valid deductive inference, the conclusion ...
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How can we decide which view to accept concerning our ultimate justification of our knowledge (Münchhausen trilemma)?

I recently came across the Münchhausen trilemma, which I think helps to explain my question. Basically, according to the trilemma, we have three options for explaining the ultimate justification of ...
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Would this be an invalid or valid argument? [closed]

All mathematical truths are knowable. All mathematical truths are eternal. So All that is knowable is eternal.
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How is gun violence comparable to drunk driving?

I just read "Is 'guns don't kill people people kill people' a good argument?" and it reminds me of another argument. I would like your opinion on whether or not it is a good argument. Gun Control ...
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Name of Argument Type

I'm trying to find the name of argument type used in the response to the statement. Statement: "The Apollo moon landing was a hoax ..." Response: "I'm not familiar with the x, y, z of your ...
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Presenting an example, then claiming the other person needs more information before using the same example - is either of us making a fallacy?

I recently had a conversation with someone in which they used an example to illustrate a point: "For example, if you tell me something [which isn't scientifically proven to be effective] works ...
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Is argument from need a valid type of reasoning, even in some cases?

To begin with, I know that if I need X , does not necessarily mean that X exists. But in some cases, it seems very convincing that if I need X then X exists. These are some examples : If I am ...
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Did Plato say “In order to argue, you must express your opponents argument better than they could?”

One friend said: If I can't see what is substantial and noble in a viewpoint I oppose - whether ethical, political, or religious - there's a good chance I haven't understood it, and/or that my own ...
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Why doesn't philosophy have higher standards for its arguments?

Mathematical systems are an excellent model for organizing and conducting thought: In the mathematics community, any argument in support of a conjecture, that deviates from "sound argument" never ...

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