Questions tagged [argumentation]

The construction, deconstruction and presentation of arguments for a position;

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16
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2answers
17k views

What fallacy dismisses problems by presenting “bigger” problems?

Wasn't really sure how to phrase this, but I'm thinking of an instance in which someone diminishes a problem by presenting one of larger scope - as a rather shoddy example, "x political problem in ...
7
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6answers
583 views

Is it a logical flaw to blame someone for an event if they were simply its causal factor?

I would ask if this is a logical fallacy, but I don't think you can consider wrongful attribution of blame to be a logical fallacy, because attributing blame is a normative claim, not a descriptive ...
3
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6answers
650 views

Is the use of inconsistent definitions a logical fallacy?

I am not asking for a defense of or pro/con of the existence of an omnipotent (or multiple omni-x) being, or for the existence of square-circles or any other similar thing. These arguments are well ...
6
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5answers
811 views

What fallacy dismisses a conclusion because supporters give invalid arguments for it?

A person dismisses an otherwise valid argument, because some of its proponents support it for the wrong reason. How is this fallacy called? EDIT: Here is an example. A person defends the idea that ...
4
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6answers
3k views

Can logic be used to prove any belief?

I have witnessed a lot of debates and arguments of different beliefs, and noticed that each side uses logic to prove its point. So, can any belief be proven by logic regardless of its nature (...
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9answers
1k views

Why do people who subscribe to self-refuting skeptical philosophies still argue with others?

The belief that everything is relative is obviously self-refuting, because it holds to an absolute. However, in my experience, people who believe this (or some form of it) such as some Buddhists and ...
163
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15answers
43k views

Is 'guns don't kill people, people kill people' a good argument?

I'm hearing the argument X doesn't do Y people do Y in quite a few guises. For instance in it's original form guns don't kill people; people kill people Presumably, therefore guns are OK cars ...
41
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10answers
13k views

What fallacy in Pascal's Wager allows replacing God with the devil?

I wanted to know the name of the fallacy or fallacies the Pascal's Wager in the sense that it can be applied to motivate one's belief in many things. A similar argument to the original Wager can be ...
3
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2answers
549 views

Can there be true conclusions without assumptions?

I was thinking of the sentence "I think therefore I am", which I had for a long time considered indisputable because it's self-evident. Then I considered the hypothetical situation where my ...
9
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4answers
3k views

Why is Modus Ponens valid?

I am having trouble understanding what defines Entailment operator. On Mathoverflow I posted this question on what I perceive to be paradox of entailment. Consider: Modus Ponens: P therefore Q P ...
6
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5answers
6k views

What is the difference between mathematical reasoning and philosophical reasoning?

Please see question in title. Why isn't philosophy considered to be a branch of mathematics? Is study of anything not a branch of mathematics, vague and imprecise?
22
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10answers
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Is it a fallacy to say that a sane person cannot apply rational thought to the motivations of the insane?

A common argument in today's news is that: Someone commits a heinous crime by shooting a bunch of people. Anyone who commits a heinous crime must be insane. Sane people cannot apply rational thought ...
9
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6answers
2k views

Why are French postmodern philosophers (like Baudrillard) so hard to read/understand?

I've read my fair share of philosophers. Now I won't say that proper philosophical texts are ever easy to understand, but it seems that French postmodern philosophers like Baudrillard are extremely ...
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4answers
9k views

Invalid arguments with true premises and true conclusion [duplicate]

I'm am study some classical logic and I am having trouble with argument validity. I learned to think of validity as determined by the definition "If the premises are true, then the conclusion must be ...
9
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4answers
354 views

Is there (or does something exist that is close to) a theory of arguments?

I'm looking for any extensive work on a framework for "arguments", that works something along these lines: When two parties are debating, they are making assertions on a particular domain, D. Those ...
8
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6answers
1k views

Is “Don't blame me; I voted for ___” a bad argument?

Is there a fallacy in the argument, "Don't blame me; I voted for ..."? Or is a voter's entire responsibility for their contribution to whatever current state of political affairs they experience ...
4
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4answers
312 views

Is argument that two theories are equally valid because I am not an expert “argument ad ignoratum”

I am trying to get to grips with an argument with a friend, whereby he argues that because he does not have the full facts or because one theory is not 100% proven means that both competing theories ...
4
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1answer
102 views

How to rate philosophy essays?

I might end up teaching philosophy in Finnish lukio/gymnasium. I will not get an opportunity to practice teaching it - I do get to practice teaching mathematics a fair deal, though. (The situation is ...
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11answers
3k views

What is the logical distinction between “the same” and “equal to?”

We all understand that Given A = C, and B = C, Then A = B. However, A is not “the same as” B. Example: A is the question, “What animals have feathers and can fly?” B is the question, “What was the ...
7
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5answers
2k views

What does Dawkins suggest is the main flaw in these three arguments from Aquinas?

Source: p 100-101, The God Delusion, By Richard Dawkins 1. The Unmoved Mover. Nothing moves without a prior mover. This leads us to an infinite regress, from which the only escape is God. ...
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5answers
1k views

Is there a point to arguing about the meaning of words?

Firstly, I should mention that I am not sure, whether this the right place to ask such a question, but I am trying it anyway. Furthermore, one could say I come from a mathematics background and I am ...
8
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5answers
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What are some arguments for the golden ratio making things more aesthetically pleasing?

What are some (not necessarily good) arguments that painters, architects, designers, musicians, etc. basing their work on the golden ratio φ makes their work more aesthetically pleasing? I think ...
8
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3answers
2k views

Why is the darapti syllogism invalid?

I found the following exposition of darapti on wikipedia: All squares are rectangles. (MaP) All squares are rhombuses. (MaS) ∴ Some rhombuses are rectangles. (SiP) As far as I can see, this is ...
3
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7answers
343 views

How can we decide which view to accept concerning our ultimate justification of our knowledge (Münchhausen trilemma)?

I recently came across the Münchhausen trilemma, which I think helps to explain my question. Basically, according to the trilemma, we have three options for explaining the ultimate justification of ...
4
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5answers
8k views

Why is argument by analogy invalid?

There is a well known fallacy called the "argument by analogy" fallacy. As I understand it, the fallacy occurs in a situation where someone makes a reasonable comparison between two situations and ...
2
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1answer
579 views

How can death matter to the dead person? - About the argument

I'm a mere beginner to philosophy and here, I'm not asking about philosophy or any abstraction about, but rather just the logic or strength of the argument for this essay topic: 'Does it matter if ...
6
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3answers
242 views

How have philosophers tried to argue for qualia?

What is the difference between the intuition that there is something it is like, qualitative experience, and faith in it? Is it possible to convince someone who doesn't believe there is something it ...
6
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3answers
2k views

Is it possible to appeal to emotion without commiting a fallacy?

People often make arguments from authority, and not all of them are fallacious. If the given authority is an expert on the discussed field, if there is a consensus among the experts of that field, and ...
6
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1answer
8k views

The difference between argument, inference, deduction and proof?

I am trying to distinguish argument, inference, deduction and proof. First, let's look at the distinction between argument and inference (if there is one). This online source states: An argument ...
4
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2answers
344 views

Information paradox: the more we know, the less confident we are

I've been studying critical thinking and come across what looks like a paradox. Let's say we have the following argument: P1) If a person is A, then it's likely that that person is also B. P2) This ...
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5answers
1k views

Is fence sitting ever admirable and valuable?

This quote is from a website for an undergraduate law admissions test of 40 minutes: Don’t sit on the fence. Don’t say that each side in an argument has a point unless you go on to say which point ...
3
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4answers
177 views

Is there a logical fallacy that considers a position false because a non-authority agrees with it?

This seems similar to Argument from authority but is an "opposite" in the sense that an argument is discredited because it comes from a non-authority on a subject. To give you an example this video ...
2
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2answers
318 views

When writing, why would a conclusion precede a premise? [closed]

Source: Lecture 2-2 (transcription), ... How to Reason and Argue, by Prof W Sinnott-Armstrong. [At the 0 min 11 secs juncture:] The actual word order doesn't always tell us the order of ...
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3answers
940 views

If all the premises of an argument are true, is the argument logically valid?

Where an argument is said to be logically valid "if and only if it is not possible for the premises to e true and the conclusion false". I know that the argument is indeed logically valid if all the ...
1
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4answers
159 views

Tu quoque and scientific anti-philosophy [closed]

Unless I misunderstood this recent thread, the scientifically minded can legitimately only believe in science (not philosophy), and what is "robust and reliable", it's just that they don't prove it's "...
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2answers
110 views

What is the difference between the Narrative Fallacy and the Post-hoc Rationalization?

Or are they the same thing? Personally I fail to see the difference between these two, but I want to be sure. EDIT Narrative fallacy "Metaphors and stories are far more potent (alas) than ideas; ...
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3answers
359 views

Visciously circular arguments against philosophy

Science seeks to explain natural events with natural causes. The Turing hypothesis does this. Beyond the bounds of science, there is no objective argument for anything really, just philosophical ...
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0answers
44 views

Reasoning for deductive inference?

I got a quiz today in my classroom. I need to say True or False to the following: Deductive inferences are typically based on unfounded assumptions. For the valid deductive inference, the conclusion ...
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3answers
223 views

Is there a word for a fallacy made by a listener instead of a speaker?

I've been thinking about misunderstandings that occur when people have philosophical discussions. Often somebody can make an entirely cogent argument, but then the other person misunderstands what has ...
1
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3answers
186 views

Fallacy: shifting the point of the conversation

A: "Biologically men and women are different, and therefore it shouldn't surprise they have different salary on average". B: "That is obvious. But you cannot derive from such a difference in terms of ...
0
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1answer
146 views

Is this argument, with roots in virtue ethics, valid?

According to virtue ethics, one should always strive to do as a "virtuous person" would do in the same situation. If a patient wishes to continue treatment, even though the doctor deems the ...
0
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4answers
2k views

What exactly does 'Some' mean in Logic?

If the argument (1) Some dogs are carnivores. (2) Some dogs are mortal. (c) Some dogs that are carnivores are mortal. is given, do those 'some dogs' refer to two different groups (dogs might or ...
0
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3answers
150 views

I search an example of an ad hominem argument, which is not simultaneously an argument from analogy

Incidentally I found an old copy from a book, with this claim: “Hence most ad hominem criticisms are really forms of the argument from analogy” (Douglas Walton, Ad Hominem Arguments, Tuscaloosa, The ...