Questions tagged [aristotle]

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher, famous for his prolific writings on a vast array of subjects, including logic, ethics, aesthetics, metaphysics, politics, and even the natural sciences. He is widely considered a "founding figure" in Western philosophy.

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Why did Aristotle claim we can't wish our friends be gods?

Aristotle asks at the close of Book VIII, Chapter 7 of the Nicomachean Ethics: Can one wish their friend the highest good, namely, to be a god? He seems to provide several reasons to think not. ...
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Did Thales believe in Hylozoism?

Aristotle states that Thales believed that "the soul is mixed in with the whole universe" and that "all things are full of gods," which seem to imply a belief in Hylozoism. However, later in the same ...
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Did Aristotle make a mistake in the Prior Analytics, Part 5?

Did Aristotle make a mistake in Part 5 of the prior analytics? “If the middle term is related universally to one of the extremes, a particular negative syllogism must result whenever the middle term ...
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Simplicius of Cilicia - Citation System

I am reading the wonderful "The Texts of Early Greek Philosophy" (Daniel W. Graham). There are frequent excerpts from Simplicius' commentary on Aristotle's Physics. I would like to look up the ...
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Aristotelean obversion: not vs non-

Apr 30: Aristotelean contraposition consists of obverting an initial proposition, converting this obversion by switching the places of the first and second propositions (keeping any negation), and ...
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Original Text Sources for 2 Aristotle ideas - 1/ nous on nous , 2/ sprial of knowledge - which texts did Aristotle first mention these in?

I am trying to track down the first mention original sources of some ideas of Aristotle in philosophy that some philosophy professors made in some university lectures. The first idea is 1/ Nous on ...
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What did Aristotle and Plato think of each other?

Since Plato was a teacher of Aristotle and was living until Aristotle was 36 years old I was wondering of what kind of opinion Aristotle had of Plato's personality and work and vice versa
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According to Plato, can there be forms for a certain class of particulars?

In the beginning of Parmenides, Plato seems to think that most, or possibly all, particulars do not have corresponding forms; but he is not very explicit about why. My question is, does it not make ...
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Good Translations of the Organon

I can't seem to find a translation of Aristotle's famous Organon that is consistently given good reviews. Does anyone have any recommendations?
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The concept of nature in the Greek philosophy

My question is: Is it possible to point to a development in the concept of "nature" in the period between pre-Socratic philosophers and Aristotle (inclusive)? Thank you very much.
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How do you compare the classical(Aristotilean) and Humean picture of the relationship between desire and practical reason?

From my basic understanding, Hume thinks desire leads the intellect, while Aristotle thinks it is more complicated? So we have more agency of our desires in the classical picture?
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What are the arguments made against the idea that Aristotelian physics is a form of empiricism?

What are the arguments made against the idea that Aristotelian physics is a form of empiricism? It's more like metaphysics to most of us, but what are the specific (very philosophically specific) ...
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How can God be in the genus of efficient causes?

In Summa Theologica I q. 3 a. 5 "Whether God is contained in a genus?", Aquinas says that if God were in a genus, it would be the genus of "being," but being cannot be the genus of anything (cf. ...
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In What Sense is Substance Epistemically Prior?

In Metaphysics Z (1028a32), Aristotle outlines different senses in which a substance can be considered to be "first": there are several senses in which a thing is said to be first; yet substance is ...
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What do I need to know before I can read Categories by Aristotle?

I'm a complete beginner, no philosophical knowledge whatsoever. What do I need to know before I can read Categories? I don't understand what is going on whenever the phrases 'is said of this' or ' is ...
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Aristotle Categories section 2

'The individual knowledge-of-grammar is in a subject, the soul, but is not said of any subject; and the individual white is in a subject, the body, but is not said of any subject' How is 'the ...
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Does Existence Belong to the Nature of Substance?

In Proposition 7, Part I of the Ethics Spinoza claims: Existence belongs to the nature of substance. This means that substance exists necessarily or, to put it even simpler, that each substance ...
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Does the act-potency distinction lead to Meinong's jungle?

The Aristotelian-Thomistic distinction of act-potency is, among other things, supposed to solve Parmenides' paradoxes of change. Since change requires something non-existent popping into existence ex ...
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Evidence for Aristotle being an empiricist?

Most secondary sources tell me yes, but can anyone provide me with primary evidence of this. A short quote would be sufficient, this is time sensitive (got an essay due tomorrow) so thank you in ...
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Is Aristotle's fallacy actually a fallacy?

In Indian syllabi, students of Physics are told that Aristotle wrongly believed that an external force was required to keep a body in motion. However, based on the little I've read on Aristotelian ...
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Aristotle's explanation of change

I am a bit confused as to how Aristotle accounts for change (accidental and substantial). I seem to understand the idea of a substance being the compound of material and form to some degree, but how ...
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Is there any intellectual advantage in reading the Grand Ethics or the Eudemian ethics?

I have already read Nicomachean Ethics 2 times and loved it. I especially like Arisotle's prose style and especially his sense of humor. It is said that his other two works on ethics cover ...
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How does Aristotle reconcile the claim that contemplation is the chief good when clearly not all things aim at it?

In this Ethics, he starts with the explanation that the chief good is "that at which everything aims". He furthers that it is "want we want for its own sake," everything else "we want is for the sake ...
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When describing someone are virtues and character the same?

Are virtues and character the same thing? If not how would they differ
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Conceptual distinction between “ strength” , “ force” and “ power”?

Philosophers distinguish between 2 kinds of " powers": moral powers ( authority, right to order something) which corresponds to potestas in Latin and " physical power" ( ability to do something, or to ...
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Did Aristotle think that children could be happy?

Given that children can't exhibit the classical virtues in the same way that adults can, did Aristotle think that children could be happy? If so, in what sense?
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Existential Import

How is it that universal propositions (from the Boolean standpoint) don't commit us to the existence of the subject term while particular propositions actually do? Also, why particularly take or focus ...
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Did Aquinas or Aristotle discuss what happens to the man when he feels bored?

Question: Did Aquinas or Aristotle discuss what happens to the man when he feels bored? What do they say about it? How do they explain that feeling? I coupled Aristotle and Aquinas in this question ...
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Do Aristotle's three laws of logic apply to statements about the future?

I have just read about Aristotle's Three Laws of Logic. I was wondering if statements such as "There is a chance of it raining in the next hour" can be evaluated using the three laws. Can you apply ...
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Aristotle's Categories and Linguistics

I have actually two questions: What he calls substances or non-substances seem to me as, now what we call a matter of language. So what he calls substances could be seen as concrete nouns, and non-...
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Do you know of a book on Greek philosophy with a Corinthian helmet on the cover?

I read it years ago, and it seems I have lost it. The biggest thing I can remember is that it had a Corinthian helmet on the front cover. Also that it was translated by multiple authors and it had ...
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Is there a difference in the definition of “some” between Aristotelian and modern logic?

My logic prof told me that "some are" does NOT necessarily mean "some are not".... Ie. it could possibly mean "ALL are", but not necessarily (ie. we are not certain that all are) However, recently I ...
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The concept of eudaimonia

The usual definitions of eudaimonia as "happiness" or "flourishing" or the like, don't seem to fit the actual translation of the word. The word means "a good spirit," where "spirit" has semi-mystical ...
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Contradictory statements with Nested Quantifiers

Edit: Thanks very much to everyone for the answers! As a follow-up question, I'm curious if there are Aristotelian methods for finding contradictories to statements with nested quantifiers. As, thanks ...
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What is the difference between praxis and poiesis?

I have found online this distinction, but I cannot wrap my mind around it: poiesis - means 'to make'; it is an action that transforms; it refers to 'bringing-forth'; a threshold occasion: a ...
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The synthetic apriority of the categorical imperative

Weirdness I noticed about Kant's theory of the categorical imperative: he says that the CI is "synthetic," in the second Critique using the very imposing phrase "sic volo, sic jubeo" to characterize ...
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Does the Law Of Excluded Middle Apply to the Principle Of Identity and Non Contradiction? [closed]

This argument will seem confusing, precisely because it observes the laws of identity being subject to equivocation. If this is kept in mind, the following should make more sense and explain why the ...
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Do Most Philosophers Ignore the Rules of Dialectical Logic?

In metaphysics it is well known that all selective conclusions about the world as a whole are undecidable. Most philosophers infer from this that metaphysics is incomprehensible. I believe this is a ...
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How to resolve this argument against possibility of change?

Let's say that some being A is changed to being B (example: lion burned to ashes, cold metal turned to hot metal, etc.). Thesis. It is impossible that being A is changed to being B. Proof. Suppose ...
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When did the idea of free will begin? Same for determinism

Hey so I'm doing this free will v determinism thing for class and I've tried but I can't seem to find when the separate beliefs came about. I know Socrates and Aristotle had something to do with them ...
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Could the link between virtues and pleasures and pains in the third chapter of Nicomachean Ethics' book II be considered a hypothetical syllogism?

In the chapter 3 of Nicomachean Ethics' book II, Aristotle says: Again, if the virtues are concerned with actions and passions, and every passion and every action is accompanied by pleasure and ...
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How and why Aristotelian essentialism is a problem for Quine?

I cannot understand how and why the Aristotelian essentialism is problematic for Quine. I have tried to read articles on the theme but probably I am not smart enough to understand them. Could you ...
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Calumnies on Aristotle's character

I've heard people allude to writings of some of Aristotle's students alleging bad character of Aristotle. I've not found the actual writings or any secondary literature on them. Can someone point me ...
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What is the the difference between common sense and phronesis?

For refference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_sense https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phronesis For me this started with Giambattista Vico who pretty much had the same idea of "common sense" ...
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How do Thomists prove that: “Everything that exists must exist by something.”?

One variation of principle of sufficient reason that Thomists use is: Everything that exists must exist by something. How do they prove such a statement? In particular, why can not something just ...
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Aristotle's Categories: Original Greek text for Chapter 2?

I'm trying to find the original Greek for this passage in the Octavius Own Oxford edition. Does anyone know of a source? Likewise also some things are predicated of a certain subject, yet are in ...
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Aristotle's Logic and Human Thought

Is Aristotle's logic sufficient to model human reasoning? If not, why not? Are there counter-examples, certain cases where we reason differently? Let's assume we're talking about sound reasoning,...
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Where does Aristotle say it's impossible to do philosophy and its methodology simultaneously?

In which of Aristotle's works does he say it's impossible to do philosophy and its methodology simultaneously?
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Traditional beginner's commentary on Aristotle's categories [duplicate]

I am looking for a traditional beginner's commentary on Aristotle's categories in order to start learning Aristotle's system of logic. Even better would be a "road map" for studying Aristotle's logic ...
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Aristotle's Four Virtues---A Negative Example

Aristotle's four virtues, as I understand it, in the modern context is that if I think of carrying out a job, then 1). Prudence: That I have sufficient reasons to carry out the job 2). Justice: ...

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