Questions tagged [aristotle]

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher, famous for his prolific writings on a vast array of subjects, including logic, ethics, aesthetics, metaphysics, politics, and even the natural sciences. He is widely considered a "founding figure" in Western philosophy.

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Question on Aristotilean Logic

This is a summary from absurdbeing.com: Unfortunately, as mentioned, Aristotle’s system of logic (based entirely on the deductive syllogism) was incomplete in at least three ways: first, it didn’t ...
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What does MacIntyre mean by Aristotle's "metaphysical biology"?

In After Virtue, Alisdair MacIntyre often refers to Aristotle's "metaphysical biology" with disapproval. What exactly does he mean by this? I assume it is more specific than Aristotle's ...
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Which arguments support Dualism as the best view of the human person?

If you had to choose between Dualism, Physicalism, and Hylomorphism, which one do you think is more likely to be accurate and why? I think Dualism is the most plausible, but that might be because I am ...
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What taxonomy of responsibility would Aristotle posit between loyalty to the state and kinship/friendship?

In a recent discussion section, the question was posed about hierarchies of responsibility between kinship/friendship and the state. Ignoring for a moment the argument that Ted Kaczinsky could have ...
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The problem of Motion

I recently heard that motion, the observation that things move, or rather change, was considered a real philosophical problem. What is the status of that question? Can someone e point me to an essay ...
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Where can I find: Averroes, Commentary on Aristotle’s Physics, Bk. 7, comment 20?

St. Thomas Aquinas, Super Sent. lib. 4 d. 33 q. 3 a. 3 co.: For this reason the Commentator [Averroes] comments on Book 7 of the Physics* that chastity (castitas) is worth the most to the speculative ...
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How does Aristotle show that 'particular deductions can be reduced to universal deductions in the first figure'?

In Prior Analytics I.7, 29b15-20, Aristotle states that And so since the syllogisms in the middle figure can all be reduced to the universal syllogisms in the first figure, and the particular ...
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Is there any review books for beginners in philosophy?

I would like to gain some knowledge of the most famous philosophers' ideas. I have only read Plato's dialogues and have some general idea of Western philosophical tradition thanks to youtube lectures ...
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What did Aristotle think of the job of Salesman?

Did Aristotle think the job of "Salesman" was the "lowest" perhaps least virtuous job a man could have?
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What are “intentionality”, “presence” and “taking as” with regards to Heidegger?

From Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, “Heidegger”: Viewed in relation to Being and Time, the central philosophical theme in these early years is Heidegger's complex critical relationship with ...
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Plants: Aristotles vs. modern biology

Corals, sea anemones, sponges, etc. are animals according to modern biology. Mold or mushrooms are not plants and belong to their own realm of fungi. The Venus flytrap is a plant, though it is capable ...
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What is Aristotle's view of plant generation?

In Book 1 of On the Generation of Animals, Aristotle gives his view of plant generation. In Book 1.1, Aristotle writes: But all those creatures which do not move, as the testacea and animals that ...
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Why does matter, according to Aristotle, have no "semantic content"?

Now, according to Aristotle, matter (œëç) is the absolute subject, that which can never become a predicate of anything. But as a pure subject matter cannot be described, or assigned any semantic ...
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What is a good reference on Aristotle's views of friendship (φιλία)?

What is a good reference on Aristotle's views of friendship (φιλία)?
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Did Aristotle actually criticise Pythagorean Philosophy?

I think Aristotle criticized the number symbolism of Pythagoreans. Is this true? In the Metaphysics, he stated that Pythogoreans thought that finitude [= odd numbers?] and infinity [= even numbers?] ...
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How does hylomorphism solve mind-body and form-matter problem? How do they interact?

So, I have been reading Aristotle and Aquinas for quite a while, but their nuanced terms make their philosophy hardly graspable. It is not clear to me how do they solve mind-body and form-matter ...
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Aristotle Physics: Things found in virtue of a concomitant attribute

Synopsis I am trying to understand better Aristotle's notion of things that do not exist by nature. I will give my understanding below, and hopefully, you guys can help me see any flaws in my ...
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Can you explain the problem with Aristotle's doctrine of terms presented in this excerpt?

I'm really confused about the second paragraph. This is form Kenny's "A New History of Philosophy". "One of the dysfunctional features of the doctrine of terms is that it fosters ...
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What is the difference between "Quality" and "Essence"?

In philosophy, I often hear the terms "essence" and "quality" being thrown around as some sort of categories (the most abstract concept our minds can have), however, I have never ...
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Did Aristotle accuse Plato of distorting Socrates?

It is always said that Plato sometimes put his words in the Socrates's mouth. Aristotle is the contemporary and critic of Plato. If Plato misattributed some Platonian notions to Socrates, Aristotle ...
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Does Aristotle Say That Household Slaves Could Not Be Dispensed With As Claimed by Arendt

In The Human Condition, Arendt claims that Aristotle says that sufficiently advanced technology would mean that the craftsman wouldn't require assistants but concedes that household slaves could never ...
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Explain meaning 'Some things, again, are present in a subject, but are never predicable of a subject' in Aristotle's Categories

Some things, again, are present in a subject, but are never predicable of a subject. For instance, a certain point of grammatical knowledge is present in the mind, but is not predicable of any subject;...
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What does Vlastov’s 1954 paper really mean

I’m Attempting to find out the counter arguments to the Third man argument. And while researching came across Vlastov’s 1954 Paper ‘The third man argument in Parmenides’ (The Philosophical Review 63, ...
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Contradictions in comparisons of expedience in the Art of Rhetoric

In "The Art of Rhetoric" Chapter 1.7, Aristotle presents a list of conditions determining which good out of two goods is the more expedient. If, of two things, one is an end and the other ...
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Is Justice a step above Equity?

I've seen this image and it made me wondering if the meanings of the words are correct. What I learned in school is that equal rights and opportunities is equity. However, in this image there is a ...
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Aristotle quote on how developing friendship takes a long time

Conor Gallagher, If Aristotle's Kid Had an iPod: Ancient Wisdom for Modern Parents ch. 10 says: “WISHING TO BE FRIENDS IS QUICK WORK, BUT FRIENDSHIP IS A SLOW RIPENING FRUIT.”—ARISTOTLE I'm assuming ...
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Can a moral theory be eudaemonological but not teleological?

Aristotle's moral theory is said to be both eudaemonological and teleological. But what is the difference between these two concepts? If a moral theory is eudaemonological, then happiness/beatitude is ...
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Are ideas things or just, eeeh, ideas?

We can read for the definition of idea, in the Cambridge dictionary: a suggestion or plan for doing something: I've had an idea - why don't we go to the coast? "Let's go swimming." "...
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How is the syllogism in my question called?

We all know the most famous syllogism introduced by Aristotle: All men (people) are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore Socrates is mortal. But what if we say: All mortals are men (people). Alice ...
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Did Aristotle discuss the distinction between syllogism and conditional?

Aristotle's Prior Analytics may be regarded as a theory of valid arguments (i.e. syllogisms). Aristotle spends most of his treatise proving that various particular "imperfect" syllogisms are ...
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Plato preempting Aristotle?

Did Plato ever anticipate and address the the Aristotelian position of identifying the existence of universals with their instantiations? If so, how have his arguments fared? Did Aristotle address ...
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What do Aristotle or Plato mean by improvement?

In this answer to this question I read: Plato has Socrates make the argument that punishment, when it is just anyway, actually improves the individual. So if you’ve done wrong you should want to be ...
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Mistake in Kenny's New History of Western Philosophy

I have been reading the chapter on logic in Ancient philosophy and I think I have noticed a mistake. On page 96, Kenny introduces Aristotle's syllogism with: Every Greek is human, Every human is ...
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Was Plato the idealist while Aristotle was more down to Earth?

When looking at Plato and Aristotle, where would we put them from the perspective of modern philosophy of science? For Plato, the abstract ideal geometric forms had more reality than their Earthly ...
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Is there a paradox in between Plato and Aristotle's theories regarding moral decision-making?

I was responding to a classmate's forum discussion post in a class of mine, and I want to know if I created a paradox or not regarding Plato and Aristotle's theories of moral decision-making. This is ...
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Aristotle: friendship between men > friendship between women?

Aristotle thought friendship between equals was greater than that between unequals, but did he think friendship among greater equals is greater than friendship between lesser equals? See: Ethics bk. 8 ...
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Aristotle's forms - how does he account for resemblances?

So Aristotle rejects Plato's forms, and replaces it with another kind of form which is solely in the particular. eg: The red table has a form of redness which is particular to the table. The red apple ...
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How is a mere substance different from an "individual substance"?

The Scholastic philosophers defined a person as "an individual substance of a rational nature" (e.g., Boethius, Aquinas). I understand how an individual could not be a substance (it would be ...
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According to Aristotle, how many unmoved movers are there in the universe?

In On The Heavens, Aristotle described there are multiple unmoved movers in different celestial spheres as the final causes of celestial movements, however, in the Physics, Aristotle concluded there ...
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Where are the words "potential infinity" and "actual infinity" originally from?

I just read Aristotle: The Physics, Books I-IV, and found nowhere the words "potential" and "actual" combined with "infinity", even if the principle is described. Now I ...
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Aristotle Politics

I need help in explaining or discussing about the Classification of Government has less or no application to modern times in government. (what are the recent modern political theories that have ...
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According to Aquinas, what is the relationship between the substantial form of a bodily being and its act of existing, ie. its esse?

Consider, for example, an existing bodily being. Because it is bodily, we know that it is composed of prime matter and substantial form. Also, because the bodily being is existing (not just made up in ...
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How does Aristotle motivate that there is no universal good?

I'm reading the Nicomachean Ethics written by Aristotle and there's this one statement (and it's motivations) that I'm really struggling with. In my version of the book it is written in rather ...
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Where does Aquinas get his "logical-metaphysical presuppositions"?

In the Summa, Aquinas frequently invokes (for lack of a better term) certain "logical-metaphysical presuppositions." Here are two examples drawn from I-II, qq. 90-91: "that which is ...
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Why bother with anything else besides Aristotle's syllogistic logic?

Disclaimer: this a "devil's advocate's question", meaning I know a lot of the answer, but for the sake of playing the Q&A game, I won't self-answer right away. The main reason I'm ...
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Does Plato hold that "the world experienced via the senses is what is real"?

According to the introduction of this article, Plato and Aristotle both held that "the world experienced via the senses is what is real." I do not doubt this point when it comes to Aristotle....
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"Either a Platonist or an Aristotelian"

In his introduction to "The Pocket Greek Reader," W.H. Auden said: one is born either a Platonist or an Aristotelian. (He immediately qualifies that remark with nods to Hippocrates and ...
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Do any philosophers discuss the ethics of the possible negative repercussions from doing what is morally good?

Aside from utilitarianism, most ethical systems seem to advocate actions that might hurt somebody or at least inconvenience them. For example, standing up to a bully might hurt them. Making a stand ...
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What are the differences between an argument and a syllogism?

What are the differences between an argument and a syllogism? Along with definitions and usages, I would like examples to understand the differences.
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Are there any books where Aristotlean quotations are collected?

Are there any books where Aristotle's quotations are available?
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