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Questions tagged [artificial-intelligence]

Artificial intelligence means making a computer do something that appears clever to humans. Fully general artificial intelligence remains an elusive and far-off goal; but many relatively 'intelligent' behaviors are now common even from consumer devices, for instance, recognizing a human face or playing a difficult game of chess.

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Could a sentient machine suffer?

I was considering this closed question very intently, and I found that I'm not at all fluent in the idea of modern slavery. Many philosophers have spoken on slavery. On this forum, someone has already ...
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Does compatibilism imply that a chess program has free will?

I am puzzled by compatibilism and am trying to understand what it means using a test example. Given that a typical chess program generates several choices, evaluates them with a goal of winning and ...
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How can one refute John Searle's “syntax is not semantics” argument against strong AI?

There are many refutations of John Searle's Chinese Room argument against Strong AI. But they seem to be addressing the structure of the thought experiment itself, as opposed to the underlying ...
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What are the retorts to Searle's Chinese Room?

Searle's Chinese Room basically argues that a program cannot make a computer 'intelligent'. Searle summarises the argument as Imagine a native English speaker who knows no Chinese locked in a room ...
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On Wittgenstein's family resemblance and machine learning

Wittgenstein proposed in his later philosophy the concept of family resemblance to describe groups which cannot be defined by a single (or simple set) of common features but instead display (from the ...
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On the difference between “knowing” and “understanding”?

Intuitively, there is a clear difference between knowing something and understanding something. We speak of someone 'getting' or 'internalizing' a concept, of developing a 'gut feeling' for something, ...
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Is the simulation of emotional states equivalent to actually experiencing emotions?

According to the 'Mario Lives!' video, researchers have been able to develop an AI unit that is able to experience emotional states, such as greed, hunger, and curiosity. If the AI is currently ...
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Do machine learning algorithms have knowledge?

By "machine learning algorithm" I'm referring to basic, primarily statistical, machine learning algorithms; for concrete examples consider simple classifier algorithms like SVM or Bayesian classifier ...
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Is the Turing test a legitimate test to compare Robots to Human?

The Turing Test has been followed as a test that robots need to complete in order to be termed "Human-Like". But to what extent is this test justified? I mean, whatever the test maybe, the robot/ ...
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Does Gödel's argument that minds are more powerful than computers have the inconsistency loophole?

In "Raatikainen, P., 2005, “On the Philosophical Relevance of Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems,” , the author argues that Penrose's and others use of Gödel's theorem as an argument against mechanism (...
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Does claiming that strong AI is impossible imply a belief in substance dualism?

I was reading an article by J Mark Bishop "The danger of artificial stupidity" on ScientaSalon, where he quotes his own research, John Searle and Hilary Putnam, among others, as proof of the ...
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Can a machine generate an “idea”?

In modern AI, we feed machines a large amount of data to solve problems. I was recently reading a paper (https://arxiv.org/pdf/1706.07068.pdf) which used ideas from psychology in order to train a ...
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What other philosophy of mind books might be recommended if I like John Searle?

What other philosophy of mind books might be recommended if I like John Searle? I am an engineer who is interested in AI and the possibility of machines become able to think and the philosophy behind ...
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How does human intelligence differ from Searle's chinese room?

The Chinese Room argument attempts to prove that a computer, no matter how powerful, cannot achieve consciousness. Brief summary: Imagine a native English speaker who knows no Chinese locked in a ...
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If we assume The Turing Test to be the criterion for moral personhood, would simulated minds pose a problem for existing moral systems?

In an answer to this question I made the rather bold speculation that if the Turing Test is taken to be our defining criterion of a consciousness of human level, then all questions in the ethics of ...
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Does Searle's Chinese Room model computers correctly?

Searle invented a thought experiment, the Chinese Room, which he proposes is an argument against Strong AI (that machines think) but not against Weak AI (that machines simulate thinking), he has a man ...
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Is our idea of Artificial Intelligence incorrect?

IBM Watson's first incarnation was to be a competitive opponent on the show Jeopardy, where it was able to interpret the semantics of the questions with impressive accuracy, and find relevant answers. ...
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Would it be ethical to own a sentient machine? [closed]

Some futurologists predict that we may have human-level artificial intelligences within the next few decades. What might be the most significant philosophical consequences of such a development, and ...
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Could a machine or an AI ever feel genuine human-like emotions?

The question of "Could a machine/AI ever feel genuine human-like emotions"? arises in movies such as Bladerunner, IRobot, Star Trek and A.I among others. What is the philosophical arguement behind why ...
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Would it be immoral to enslave your own simulated mind?

The following story has been envisioned in White Christmas episode (part II) of Black Mirror television series (see the short clip): Matt greets the confused and terrified "Greta cookie" ...
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Are the Sims self aware?

According to Professor Nick Bostrom of Oxford University: ...at least one of the following propositions is true: (1) the human species is very likely to go extinct before reaching a “posthuman” ...
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Could Watson be used to answer philosophical questions?

IBM's Watson computer is known for winning the Jeopardy quiz show against the top human players. It has also been put to cancer research. Watson works by analyzing large chunks of texts to come up ...
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What are some examples of solved philosophical problems?

Are there any examples of philosophical problems that have been solved? How can we know a proposed solution to a philosophical problem is correct? Examples of "philosophical problems": If a tree ...
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In what type of world is free will possible, if at all?

Why is free will a widely discussed, established concept? Does this concept emerge from religious / spiritual doctrine? Why is there so much interest in this topic? If a neural-network based AI ...
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Does a mind inherently gain understanding between “right” and “wrong” with the development of logical intelligence?

Humans, at least I think, seem to inherently understand, without being taught culturally, that some things are right and some thing are wrong. I can't explain this, thinking of thought as a very ...
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What fallacy assumes that being familiar with something makes one an expert on it?

In the article Why We Shouldn't Fear Artificial Intelligence, the author writes:"A common fallacy suggests that, because AI are hosted on computers, they’ll be good at manipulating them. But let me ...
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Which are the best Artificial Intelligence philosophy books?

I am a Computer Scientist interested in philosopy of Artificial Intelligence. Is there a good book that covers AI main philosphical questions?
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Why doesn't the Chinese room learn Chinese?

I just can't see how John Searle's Chinese room makes sense. The room passes the Turing test. People outside the room think there's a human inside who understands Chinese. But, Searle explains, the ...
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How does GEB support AI?

Typically, Godel's Incompleteness theorems have been used to argue against the possibility that the human mind is essentially equivalent to a formal system. However, in Daniel Dennett's book "Darwin's ...
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If there is life, then there is more complex life as well?

Researchers in Switzerland have developed an Altruism algorithm that shows how altruism in a swarm of entities can, over time, evolve and result in more effective swarm behaviour. For an ant colony, ...
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Are there any physicalist arguments against strong AI?

Are there any arguments against strong AI in principle, given physicalism? Are there any arguments against strong AI in practice, given physicalism? Basically, I want to be aware of any potential ...
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What would a “Turing test for reference” show?

What does Hilary Putnam mean by this? Imagine a situation in which the problem is not to determine if the partner is really a person or a machine, but is rather to determine if the partner uses ...
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Can Mind-Body Functionalism be true yet General Artificial Intelligence still be impossible?

In this lecture Hilary Putnam says the following: Mind-body Functionalism is true. In fact not only is it true, but it makes ontological questions of philosophy of mind mostly irrelevant. The laws ...
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Book Recommendation for Computational Theory of Mind

These days I'm really into studying the Computational Theory of Mind (CTM) and I have read papers and documents online. However, I have difficulty capturing the overall (received) theories of CTM at ...
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Philosophical work that focuses on “pattern” and “change”?

My own specialty is A.I., but I figure this is an essentially philosophical topic. The existence of patterns and of change, or, said differently, of continuous change at multiple levels of abstraction,...
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Do limits of human nature suggest that it could be principally understood?

Human nature is limited, so is our thinking. We are limited by our bodies, and power of thoughts is limited by the number of cortical and other neurons, number and speed of their connections, which ...
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Concerning A.I. and Robots - Can they reach sentience and consciousness?

If a robot had a cognitive system in its 'head' that can pass the Turing Test and its AI abilities where self-sustaining (and it can reprogram any part of 'itself' without causing self-sabotage) how ...
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Why do Cohen and Levesque speak of overcommitment in this case?

I have to write a critic to this paper: "Intention Is Choice with Commitment" by Philip R. Cohen and Hector J. Levesque There is this one passage I definitively do not understand, right at the ...
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Could a philosophical zombie conclude “cogito ergo sum”?

Could a philosophical zombie conclude "cogito ergo sum"? Assume a philosophical zombie which is a hypothetical being that is indistinguishable from a normal human being except in that it lacks ...
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On the personal identity of a self aware artificial intelligence

Philosophers have discussed the question of personal identity of humans, including humans uploaded to hypothetical computers; but are there any notable discussions of the problems of personal identity ...
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Are programmers evidence Artificial Intelligence is impossible?

While not a logical proof, this appears to be a practical disproof of AI. If it were possible to replace programmers, with all the brainpower and sheer quantities of money directed at computer ...
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To be or not be—what would a conscious computer decide?

The Prometheus myth can be interpreted as consciousness being a burden. Camus used the myth of Sisyphus to debate the same issue. It is the theme of a famous speech from Hamlet. Heidegger talks of ...
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Does it make sense to define a computer as a symbol-manipulating device?

Searle (John Searle (1997), The Mystery of Consciousness, p9) says “A computer is by definition a device that manipulates formal symbols”. What does he mean? How do you define a piece of electronic ...
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Are “robot rebellions” even possible?

A common science-fiction trope is the "robot rebellion"...but I have a hard time comphrending how one could actually occur. Computers follow pre-designed instructions. Without these instructions, ...
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Would a conscious computer naturally hold a solipsistic philosophy?

We're biologically incapable of ignoring our senses. I want to clarify what I mean by this, because as posters have suggested we actually can do so, for example by blinding or gouging our eyes. I'm ...
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What are the minimum necessary and sufficient conditions for something to be considered sentient?

The answer to Could a sentient machine suffer? suggests that The ability to suffer would not seem to be a necessary condition for sentience This made me wonder what the minimum necessary and ...
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What is the relationship between consciousness and intelligence?

Some philosophers say that consciousness is all about experiences, feelings, etc. Can we say that intelligence is also an experience or feeling making it one of the outcomes of consciousness or ...
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Can we recognize the existence of a Strong AI after it is created?

It is, of course, debatable whether a Strong AI even can exist. After all, philosophical arguments about the Chinese Room and Philosophical Zombies abound. However, it is possible to imagine a world ...
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Does artificial intelligence necessarily mean a system can somehow “freely” vary its own behaviour?

If an artificial intelligence system existed in a robot and it was able to constantly reprogram and reconfigure itself in any way without disrupting its necessary functions, and without even partly ...
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Where is the knowledge that AI's “knowledge representations” represent?

I find this really confusing. AI often says its computer systems "know" things, but when AI explains how to program a computer to be intelligent, it talks only about "knowledge representation". E.g., ...