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Questions tagged [belief]

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Are political “ism”-beliefs artificial? But some of them must exist, so how can they be measured?

Are political "ism"-beliefs artificial? But some of them must exist, so how can they be measured? Over and over again, I find concepts such as: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chauvinism to be ...
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1answer
41 views

References discussing self-evident truths?

I am interested in philosophical or logic-based texts that discuss the nature of self-evident truths, which seem related to Alvin Plantinga's discussion of so-called properly basic beliefs. I am more ...
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2answers
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Does understanding require momentary belief?

Consider the following scenario. You are learning a difficult argument for the first time, but your prior beliefs disagree with the conclusion of the argument. It takes you significant effort to parse ...
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100 views

Does theism imply worship?

There are and were many theistic religions. In most if not all of them there is some kind of worship. However, as far as I am aware theism only means a belief in some kind of unworldly beings who ...
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3answers
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can you rationally believe in an ever changing identity, but also believe that parts of us persevere?

Is it possible to rationally believe that certain aspects of the identity don't change, while still acknowledging the fact that we are not the same person we were an instant ago? In other words, is it ...
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2answers
219 views

How do I believe in free will? [closed]

After considering all possible ways that famous philosophers have tried to explain it, and reading so many articles that treat it like God’s greatest gift to mankind, I still don’t get it. Is it that ...
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1answer
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Are there any sources dealing with Clark's *Without Evidence or Argument: A Defense of Reformed Epistemology*?

Clark's argument seems to be in response to Clifford's Ethics of Belief. Are there any sources which attempt to defend Clifford's argument against Clark's supposed rebuttal? Thank you very much, any ...
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Why is belief necessary for justified true belief?

In justified true belief it is said that for a person to know a fact it must be true, she must believe in it and she must be justified in believing it. My question is: Is belief necessary? Why is the ...
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2answers
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Knowledge without a belief: do infants have beliefs?

We say that knowledge is connected with beliefs. Infants do some basic things required to sustain their life, like breathing. We can say they know how to breath. Maybe they do it aimlessly, but they ...
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1answer
35 views

Online (pdf) resources on doxastic logic

I would be interested in learning more about doxastic logic. The wiki entry is rather detailed but still obviously very summarised and references therein are either papers with a paywall or books ...
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4answers
136 views

How can I abandon beliefs supplied by the culture?

I have beliefs which seem irrational and trivial to me. These beliefs diminish my freedom. But still, guilt is produced when I am not acting in accordance with these beliefs. I am not speaking about ...
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4answers
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Difference between “epistemological” belief and “theistic” belief

This question might sound odd, maybe because of lack of better phrasing, maybe because it's simply odd thinking, but I think there's something really interesting here. The epistemological stages ...
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What is the term for the fallacy/strategy of ignoring logical reasoning intended to disprove a belief?

Updated 10/19/2018 -- Regards for all the responses. Much appreciated. To address the point of fact that one cannot "prove" anything about reality: Yes, I agree. This is the reason I now set my ...
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3answers
158 views

What makes possible for people to make claims to knowledge or make claims based on beliefs?

What makes possible for people to make claims to knowledge or make claims based on beliefs? Intuitively, anyone can claim anything. Anyone can hold any sort of belief. Practically it also seems that ...
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5answers
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What is the difference between justification, truth and belief?

I have seen "justification", "truth" and "belief" used a lot in Crash Course philosophy and would like to know some hard differences between the three.
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3answers
133 views

Equal evidence for and against a belief - which to choose?

If there is a belief for which there is an equal amount of evidence both for and against (the evidence is provided by experts in the appropriate field), what is the most rational thing to do in a ...
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1answer
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What makes a basic belief a properly basic belief?

I'm currently looking into Plantinga's reformed epistemology and I'm trying to wrap my head around what makes a basic belief a properly basic belief. I understand what a basic belief is, in that it ...
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1answer
145 views

Can belief in reincarnation be justified using empirical evidence?

It's claimed in An Introduction to Parapsychology, 5th ed.: The survival hypothesis concerns the notion of postmortem survival, that is, that a disembodied consciousness or some such discarnate ...
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At what degree of certainty are we incredulous? [closed]

At what degree of certainty are we incredulous? I'm asking because I'm not incredulous about something I recognize I cannot prove, and want to put a degree of certainty on it.
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What defines “lack of evidence” and is it irrational to believe in something without evidence?

It is commonly accepted that the lack of evidence for a particular proposition makes belief in said proposition irrational. However, imagine the following proposition, P: An object exists for ...
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0answers
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What do the existentialists say about holding ridiculous beliefs, given they don't change your behaviour? [closed]

What do the existentialists say about holding ridiculous beliefs, given they don't change your behaviour? I know that Sartre might consider highly self important beliefs inauthentic, but wondered what ...
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3answers
172 views

Do people get according to their deeds?

Do the good and bad deeds of a person pay off? I had seen many of such examples and even heard of many, but I'm quite unsure of whether this is just a belief or are there any ideal principles behind ...
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10answers
549 views

What do atheists believe in? (in layman terms)

Issue I travel quite a bit and am often asked about my religious beliefs. I am atheist. I found it hard for some religious (or spiritual) people (whatever religion) to accept the concept of atheism ...
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257 views

Correlation between Stirner's “spooks” and Dawkins' “memes”?

Stirner proposed that most commonly accepted social institutions – including the notion of State, property as a right, natural rights in general, and the very notion of society – were mere illusions. ...
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When ought we trust others instead of ourselves?

When ought we trust others instead of ourselves? Since, I've noticed that it's particularly commonplace to cite authors, even if they weren't scientists. E.g. in political contexts. "Marx said ...", "...
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1answer
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Is there a contemporary survey of exportation?

In "Unrestricted Exportation and Some Morals for the Philosophy of Language", Kripke discusses unrestricted exportation in relation to the de dicto / de re distinction. In this paper he cites a few ...
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1answer
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Why does an individual hold a belief? [closed]

I've been asked why people hold beliefs. What is the raison d'etre of human belief? anyone have an idea?
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4answers
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Are You Blameworthy for “reasoning incorrectly”

Moral judgements are a certain species of normative judgement that people make about the actions of others. However, there are instances where I am tempted to say that you can be judged as "wrong" in ...
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2answers
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Is it metaphysically possible for a belief to act directly?

(This question is splited from another question as suggested by moderators) Ever since reading this NewScientist issue on how even if for some beliefs that despite being based on falsehoods, can have ...
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1answer
284 views

How are beliefs restricted by an objective reality?

Consider the following belief A human can survive if they don't drink water for 1000 days We knew from biology that this is practically improbable as there are very few people who can survive for ...
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4answers
385 views

Is belief an intentional act?

In what respect are we to understand the proposition, "I choose to believe x", and is there a significant difference between the proposition, "I choose to believe x" and "I choose to drive to San ...
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5answers
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Opinions in face of an unsolvable problem (case-study on the existence of God)

Context For the purpose of this post, I will assume the following quote from @jobermark (here) to be true and will ask a question on the consequences of such truth [W]e really can only talk about ...
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2answers
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Are these logical arguments against the existence of a god? [closed]

Consider the two following observations... Observation 1 Randomly assigned individuals to watching a movie about death or a random movie about a very neutral subject. At the end of the movie, ask ...
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6answers
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Can logic be used to prove any belief?

I have witnessed a lot of debates and arguments of different beliefs, and noticed that each side uses logic to prove its point. So, can any belief be proven by logic regardless of its nature (...
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Is justification for X being true different to justification for believing that X is true?

It could be said that to believe that X is true is simply to hold that X is the case. Truth is a characteristic of statements, not the world. So justification for X being true is exactly the same ...
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2answers
367 views

Believing in Axioms vs belief in God

I have always held that there are different levels of belief. For example believing in the Axiom of choice requires less effort than believing in God, although neither are provable. One appeals to my ...
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1answer
988 views

What are some example of properly basic beliefs being incorrigible and how can incorrigible beliefs be justified?

I was reading that properly basic beliefs are beliefs that are either self-evidently true, evident to the senses or incorrigible. The general example given for incorrigible beliefs is "beliefs I ...
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5answers
166 views

What if early religion was created for closure [closed]

What if religion was created based solely on the fact that humans have an inherent fear of death, and have the need to be something more than human, because they're not satisfied with the mortal state ...
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How do debates about meaning affect the status of personal religious beliefs?

Debates about the meaning of meaning cut across the analytic/continental divide. According to externalist accounts (e.g. Kripke-Putnam's) people believe, or even know, that beeches are different from ...
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7answers
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What makes a religion genuine or acceptable? [closed]

Often people take it for granted that we should allow people to believe whatever they believe and not critisise that they choose to be religious. What I am wondering is what makes a belief acceptable ...
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Are unexamined belief systems a.k.a. superstitions & dogmas, studied by a specific branch of philosophy? [closed]

Context: Superstitions, dogmas and various kinds of unexamined belief-systems are rife in almost all populations around the world, and all demographic classifications. While some are easily spotted (e....
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5answers
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Is Cleverness a part of Wisdom? [closed]

Well, i mean to ask, that is a clever person....a wise one naturally or not? Is it necessary for a very wise person to be very clever also?
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6answers
354 views

About the beliefs of those who believe in no after life [closed]

Do people who believe in only a finite existence and that there is no type of 'after life' ; do they think this is an absolute certainty ? If one is extremely certain about this being a 'finite ...
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3answers
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Can your attitude towards a proposition P be that P is false or do you actually believe ~P?

Started reading about beliefs and propositions, and the working definition I have of X believes P is that X thinks P is true. So suppose I don't believe P. Would it be more accurate to say I think P ...
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1answer
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How to properly define the “neutral” position between Theism/Atheism and Agnosticism/Gnosticism?

Assuming that: agnosticism = belief that there is no way to verify if god/s exist or not. gnosticism = belief that there is a way to verify if god/s exist or not. atheism = disbelief in the ...
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2answers
766 views

what does “Justified” mean? [closed]

I saw the term JTB (Justified true belief). What is the act of Justificaton ? What makes somthing "Just" ? Cheers Sharon
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4answers
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How can I know that I know something? [closed]

This also a question about what is the definition of knowledge.
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2answers
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Is it right to not believe someone simply because it is beyond our experience?

I've heard plenty of testimonials where people claimed supernatural experiences. Sometimes I feel like they can be 'out of the grid' of those hearing them and so often times we put them in the "I don'...
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1answer
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Evidence for beliefs

If someone believes a certain set of ideas and/or principles is true, is it true this person will had to have had some 'real' (empirical, 'non-a-priori-established') evidence of some information in ...
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Assuming P means the same as Q and Bob believes P and is aware that P means the same as Q, can we conclude he believes Q?

Assuming Bob is a fairly rational person. If this is not the case, then is there a way to modify it? Also, is this the argument that Frege is making in "On Sense and Reference" that "the morning star" ...