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Questions tagged [belief]

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-3 votes
6 answers
121 views

If a given type of event has never been believed when it didn’t really happen, does belief in such an event necessarily indicate that it happened?

Suppose someone claimed that since a given type of event has never been believed when it didn’t really happen, if it is believed then we have very strong evidence that the event really happened. Is ...
A-Level Student's user avatar
8 votes
6 answers
923 views

Would it be possible to convince a hungry alien species that human lives are valuable?

Suppose that: an extraterrestrial species comes to earth they are vastly more intelligent than us, and are capable of easily overpowering us militarily they have moral intuitions, but different from ...
ac15's user avatar
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8 votes
10 answers
5k views

Why are most philosophers non-theists and most non-philosophers theists? [closed]

According to PhilPapers Survey 2020, 66.95% of philosophers accept or lean towards atheism and 7.18% are agnostic or undecided, whereas only a 18.93% accepts or leans towards theism. In sharp contrast,...
Mark's user avatar
  • 5,369
2 votes
5 answers
212 views

How do I validate my confidence in things? [duplicate]

This is honestly tripping me out the more I delved into it. Of course, I feel more confident that my mother is my real mother than myself being kidnapped tomorrow. But how do I show that this is ...
Baby_philosopher's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
93 views

Any psychological self-test questionnaire to measure philosophical stances?

Possible cross-domain duplicate: https://psychology.stackexchange.com/questions/17532/are-there-any-tests-for-ones-belief-or-philosophy There are various multiple-choice questions across internet, ...
user avatar
9 votes
12 answers
3k views

Is non-physicalism reasonable?

My question has two components: Reasonableness. What does it mean for a position to be reasonable? What conditions does a position have to meet to be regarded as reasonable? Physicalism. Wikipedia ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 5,369
9 votes
10 answers
3k views

Does it matter if certain professions have a lower rate of theism, and if so, why does it matter?

Many of us are familiar with discussions bringing up the correlation with religion and IQ, or educational achievement, or being a professional in a certain field like physics or biology. These are ...
TKoL's user avatar
  • 3,430
4 votes
1 answer
156 views

Can faith be based on hope rather than belief or intellectual assent?

I've been reflecting on the interplay between faith and hope, especially when hope entails some degree of uncertainty and lack of intellectual assent but a strong desire for something to be true. As ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 5,369
2 votes
0 answers
87 views

Is there an affective state of knowledge or belief? [closed]

Is there an affective state of knowledge or belief? Can I affectively or emotionally know that my wife is having an affair or that I am not the father of my children, but not be able to justify to ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
22 views

Do we need intersubjective agreement for social knowledge?

Do we need intersubjective agreement for social knowledge? Suppose I have two photographs, and I am fairly clear to myself that they are the same person, but everyone else disagrees. Do I know they ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
45 views

What is a "sphere model"?

I'm reading the SEP entry on multi-modal logic and there's this passage: Is this related to what the SEP entry on infinity says about probability, here?: Kolmogorov notes that if the original ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
79 views

If an unfalsifiable claim doesn't contradict known fact, is it harmful to hold?

Say panpsychism. It's compatible with physics, but I don't know how we could determine if an electron is conscious. I don't even know you're conscious! But if believing in it made one's life better, ...
Sayetsu's user avatar
  • 133
0 votes
1 answer
88 views

Why is having true beliefs important? (More detail)

I forgot to keep track of my earlier asking of this question. Rather than make similar replies to many comments, I'll elaborate here. I'll use the example of panpsychism: it holds that natural laws ...
Sayetsu's user avatar
  • 133
9 votes
9 answers
4k views

Do people who "withhold judgement" also have a burden of proof?

I will illustrate my question with several examples involving 3 individuals: A, B, C. Example 1: The shape of the Earth A defends the claim that the Earth is round. B defends the claim that the Earth ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 5,369
1 vote
5 answers
302 views

Is atheism a proposition?

Theism proposes the existence of God. Atheism makes no proposition, it is simply the absence of a belief in God. Theism is the proposition. Atheism is the negation. The negation is not a proposition. ...
Meanach's user avatar
  • 2,385
2 votes
0 answers
33 views

Is there a detailed doxastic logic with a doubt operator?

I was "experimenting" with a doxastic logic with a doubt operator D besides the belief operator B, trying to come up with intuitive equivalences of interleavings (e.g. DBA = BDA, perhaps), ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
11 votes
6 answers
664 views

Can private experiences justify private belief in supernaturalism?

Is it ever rational or justified to believe in supernaturalism on the basis of private experiences (of the kind for which publicly accesible evidence can hardly be produced)? If someone has private ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 5,369
2 votes
6 answers
388 views

Is atheism a belief system? [duplicate]

I do not believe in God. This is not a belief. I have seen the assertion that atheism is a belief system, but no evidence. Is this an unsubstantiated assertion by theists, or is there any ...
Meanach's user avatar
  • 2,385
2 votes
6 answers
569 views

Can God make the belief in His own existence justified (if He exists)?

In a hypothetical scenario in which God exists, would God be able to make the belief in His existence justified for humans? If so, how? What would God need to do to accomplish that goal? If not, does ...
Mark's user avatar
  • 5,369
2 votes
2 answers
180 views

Is belief a choice or a state of being convinced with regard to a particular statement?

When presented a statement or argument x, and relevant background information B(x), what determines whether the listener's assent to the truth of x can be interpreted as a choice vs an induced state ...
Annika's user avatar
  • 1,663
1 vote
1 answer
109 views

What does "p is true for S at t" mean?

In Alvin Goldman's article "What Is Justified Belief", what does "p is true for S at t" mean? where p is a proposition, S is a person and t is time. More specifically, how is it ...
Charles's user avatar
  • 19
2 votes
3 answers
117 views

Tim lies a lot, so should we believe Tim is the King of France when he claims he isn't? [duplicate]

Tim lies a lot, so should we believe Tim is the King of France when he claims he isn't? What fallacy is saying we should? Is the testimony of a proven liar sometimes or never reason to believe the ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
86 views

What does the Principal Principle say about our rational credences in outcomes?

According to David Lewis, the Principal Principle says that “our beliefs about the objective chances of outcomes (typically) determine our rational credences in those outcomes.” I’m assuming that this ...
user avatar
3 votes
5 answers
711 views

Do people believe things that they know or believe are irrational?

Do people believe things that they know or believe are irrational? Do some theists think "I know belief in God is irrational, but I believe in Him anyway". etc.. I've not read Kierkegaard, ...
user avatar
5 votes
10 answers
3k views

Is there a difference between believing something and behaving as if it were true?

To clarify, I mean without deception. In other words, if something seems plausible to me, and I decide to act on it as though it were true while recognizing that I could be mistaken, do I believe it? ...
Steven Harder's user avatar
2 votes
6 answers
155 views

When choosing between two theories, should you believe in the more plausible one? Or have a degree of belief in both?

Suppose you have two theories explaining data and no other theory is possible such that they are logically exhaustive. You know all there is to know about the data and theories. Should you, now, A) ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
51 views

Why do we believe certain things if they can’t be justified?

Russell said that “there is no difference between sanity and insanity” if Hume’s problem of induction cannot be solved. To me, I am not sure if I can justify that the sun will rise tomorrow, even ...
user avatar
-2 votes
2 answers
111 views

If different realities can’t have probabilities, does this mean no reality is more reasonable to believe than another?

This question is ultimately a follow up to this one For the context of the question, assume that a metaphysical reality is a reality that can be conceived without contradiction and that these ...
user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
77 views

The deception clause in lying

What if I am asked a question, and respond with an untruth I know is untrue, and I don't really care if I am believed, but definitely don't want to be found out (I don't want anyone to know Ive ...
user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
109 views

Do superstitions follow the logic of the empty universe?

Superstitions are of two kinds, false belief about real onjects ( cat crossed road brings bad luck), or belief about objects that cannot exist (ghosts inhabit places where someone was murdered). Since ...
akhil999in's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
139 views

Can any state of affairs that is possible under known laws serve as evidence for the supernatural?

Should any of these events, by themselves, serve as evidence for the supernatural or some missing law of nature that may be operating on it? More curiously, should any of these events rationally even ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
50 views

Is it rational to suspend belief in everything except necessarily true/false statements?

Is it rational to suspend belief, in any shape or form, in every statement unless it is logically necessary or incoherent? For example, is it rational to simply not believe that the sun will rise ...
user avatar
4 votes
7 answers
2k views

Is it contradictory to believe in something but consider something else possible?

If I believe in god but consider it possible that god may not exist, am I not contradicting myself? If I believe in god, then that means I believe that god exists. In what sense does it make sense to ...
user avatar
8 votes
11 answers
1k views

If we can't be 100% sure of anything, then we have to believe everything with a grain of salt?

If we can't be 100% sure of anything, then we should trust everything with mistrust and suspicion? For example, the existence of other minds, the existence of the outside world, etc. is currently ...
Arnold's user avatar
  • 577
3 votes
4 answers
129 views

How does one quantify how rational it is to believe in something?

How objectively rational is it to believe that God exists or that the sun will rise tomorrow or that my girlfriend will cheat on me? I understand that the concept of credence and subjective ...
user avatar
7 votes
5 answers
281 views

What is an explanation really?

Let's consider a hypothetical 'Church of the Moon' on a distant planet with a huge moon. The members of this church base all their beliefs about the moon and their religious practices on their holy ...
user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
62 views

Help trying to update beliefs

You lose at cards. Suppose the chances that the other person was card counting, P, is 1/1000. You lose at cards again. This time, the chances that this person was counting cards, B, is 1/100. The ...
user avatar
2 votes
4 answers
148 views

Help working out the believability of some evidence

Suppose I have some evidence of where I was while a crime was being committed, a recording of me visiting a bank and asking for the time of a transaction (which was completed at that time elsewhere). ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
22 views

Is the reasonableness of a belief or moral claim relative?

Is the reasonableness of a belief or moral claim relative? I found some articles on the ethical word "reasonable", but lack access. Apparently it is key to "liberal" political ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
84 views

Using 'love' to make sense of knowledge

I love my spouse, but I suspect (I think I believe the are) they are cheating on me, and I've even heard my friends gossip about my spouse's affairs etc.. But I love my spouse, so do not think I know -...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
138 views

Is there a concept of purely comparative credence in philosophy?

After some interesting discussions with some people here that allowed me to flesh out exactly how I think beliefs are represented in my mind, I was trying to find out if there is mention of it in the ...
user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
1k views

Does a 100% degree of belief imply that no amount of evidence can change your mind?

As a reminder, in Bayesian epistemology, given a hypothesis H and new evidence E, it is recommended to update your degree of belief using the formula P (H|E) = (P (E|H) * P(H))/P(E). P (H) is the ...
user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
98 views

Are beliefs like "I am in pain" really incorrigible and basic?

I am reading about epistemology and foundationalism and I see this claim that beliefs about your own inner mental states are incorrigible and basic. But is that really so? For someone to believe the ...
ArAj's user avatar
  • 813
3 votes
4 answers
167 views

Are there any stoic suggestions around dealing with unneeded hard truths and happy unknowing minds?

Say I really liked sausage, one day decided to learn how it was made, and came out disgusted though not morally opposed. Later, someone is telling me they really like sausage. They are happy liking ...
Seph Reed's user avatar
  • 131
1 vote
2 answers
412 views

Can someone explain to me what a contingent fact is?

English is not my first language and I'm trying to understand Williams Argument in "Deciding to believe" when he says that it is not possibe to bring about belief at will and that this is ...
JessicaSterling's user avatar
0 votes
4 answers
115 views

What is the most logical belief I can hold about the value of an unknown coin I lost at a Cafe?

This is a real incidence. A couple of hours ago, I was sitting in a Cafe, and while fiddling with my wallet, two coins fell out of it. I picked one quickly, but the other one just rolled away below ...
Peaceful's user avatar
  • 101
4 votes
2 answers
131 views

Can it be rational to think you can't be wrong about something?

Descartes famously argued that we can technically be wrong about anything. We can even doubt that the world isn't actually real in some sense and is just a simulation. But why does doubt imply the ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
36 views

How does pluralism about doxastic logic work?

If person M has a concept of belief, and a logic for that concept, B1, but some other person N has concept B2, with different inference rules over the operator, then on the first-order level, does M ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
0 votes
4 answers
204 views

If we accept that living things have a soul, when and where does that happen?

I identify myself as a Christian, but I'm not posting this on Christianity because almost all religions have a definition for soul. The Latin word "anima" was "something" they ...
Bogdan Floareș's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
45 views

Degrees of belief without evidence

I'm not sure this is really a philosophy question. Suppose that I have some evidence that my wife is having an affair, but it all dates back to a year ago. How do I incorporate the lack of evidence ...
user avatar