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1answer
34 views

Is information causal?

I am coming to this question in response to scepticism about emergentism as more than an overlay (eg. SEP article). Entropy is well established as related to relative information about systems, and ...
5
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5answers
2k views

If we imagine a world that functions without causality, how absurd could it be?

If we assume that there's a universe that is devoid of causality, and if we assume that it isn't eternally static, would that mean that everything can happen because there are no reasons inhibiting ...
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7answers
126 views

How are the actions of conscious beings interpreted in terms of cause and effect?

When there's inanimate objects such as two billiard balls, we determine that ball C is the cause of Ball D's movement if C collides with D and shoves it. In addition, because ball C is an inanimate ...
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4answers
98 views

If I use an object to produce an effect, am I the direct or the indirect cause of the effect?

People appeared to approach this question as if it were about whether I can be held liable for the action of breaking a window (the main example). However, this question has nothing to do with law; ...
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2answers
70 views

Is causality a type of necessary and sufficient condition?

Does 'A caused B' mean that A is a necessary and sufficient condition for B? Imagine that we go to a shop and buy two items with a total cost 40 dollars (30 for 1st item and 10 for the 2nd). Is the ...
3
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2answers
72 views

Causality: is it possible for one attribute to be found in one node but not the others before it?

This is a rather basic question about causality and logical reasoning, but I'm a bit confused over it (especially in terms of the "first cause" argument). Causality (from Wikipedia): Agency or ...
5
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5answers
321 views

I can't see how free will exists in a universe that's only causal or random, can I be convinced otherwise?

From what I've looked into on the topic of free will, I've found it difficult to see how it could exist in a universe of pure causality or randomness. However, I haven't fully abandoned the idea of ...
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3answers
100 views

How we obtain scientific knowledge

I have seen some posts about knowledge but want to explore another perspective. Here is the sort of thing I thought, maybe you can help with a complete answer or at least give some recommendation. ...
3
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1answer
58 views

Does explanation matter in philosophy?

In everyday life people supposedly have a reason for acting in a certain way, or when under scrutiny, they can-to a certain degree-attribute certain actions as intended components to a process that ...
3
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1answer
43 views

What should be first according to Aristotle: the nature of being or the nature of explanation?

I see that in his Metaphysics he starts speaking of the nature of explanation as if he thinks, I think, that it is key to be understood before moving to the investigation about being. But then, in his ...
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0answers
43 views

Causality as a product of creation

Got a short quest if creation gives rise to time and the world. Our perception allows observation of that world and we interpret events within it as a result of which we describe as causality. Action ...
6
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2answers
82 views

Why is Hume struggling to reconcile causality with his notion of what is knowable?

This is a follow-up on my earlier question. Regarding causality as involving "a necessary connection between cause and effect" In what sense was Hume struggling to reconcile the "necessity' with his ...
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1answer
65 views

Aristotle on the impossibility of the indivisibility - Aristotle's physics book I

I'm having trouble with the following part of Aristotle's physics (185b17-185b18): But to proceed: If their One is one as indivisible, nothing will have quantity or quality, and so what exists ...
2
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1answer
45 views

Is this statement about causality a fair representation of Hume's view?

Would it be accurate to say that according to Hume causality is another way to describe the (relative) permanence of steps in causal chains of events? If this is not the case, what would be considered ...
6
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5answers
319 views

Is it possible to have truth if objective randomness exists?

I will do my best to describe both of my terms as clearly as possible. I would describe true randomness as a process that has absolutely no predictability : even if you knew absolutely everything you ...
2
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1answer
33 views

Can the immediate effect of a cause be considered a part of the cause? If not, why?

I was wondering whether heat from a fire can be considered part of the fire (heat will definitely exist merely in the presence of fire)? Or, whether sunlight can be considered part of the sun (...
5
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1answer
43 views

Aristotle's middle point between teleological eliminativists and teleological intentionalists

I'm reading an introduction to Aristotle's theory of causation, Aristotle by Christopher Shields, and I understand that he says that Aristotle's view of final causes is between teleological ...
0
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2answers
41 views

Aristotle notion of action in his physics?

I do not understand the notion of action in the following paragraph (Phys. 199a9–20): As things are in action, so they are in nature; and as they are in nature, so they are in action, so long as ...
4
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2answers
70 views

Book or article recommendation about causality and counterfactuals

I'd like to assign social science undergraduate students an article, short part of a book, or even a blog post about causality and counterfactual logic that is easy to understand. It seems that most ...
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0answers
50 views

How does Hume justify his account of the origin of causation to a general sense?

Hume's account of causation explains why we think specific things have causes and explains them in terms of their constant connection in our minds such that we associate them by "habit". Hume brings ...
2
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0answers
61 views

causality violation

Any of you have ever analyzed causality violation: anti-arguments are obvious but I am asking for kind a strong support of this odd logic. For example: If you don't think or do something today, your ...
3
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1answer
121 views

Spinoza and causality

Spinoza puts causality above freedom. As a follower of Descartes and a rationalist, in unsterstanding of everything he goes from simple to complex, from subject to objects. In order to understand ...
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0answers
262 views

What does Kant think about a priori concepts of causality?

This is an excerpt from Critique of Pure Reason, B13: Take the proposition: "Everything that happens has its cause." In the concept of something that happens, I think, to be sure, of an ...
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0answers
112 views

Question about Leibniz' view on monads and causality

I have a question about this video regarding Leibniz, monads and interaction: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SxGuoyxyKMA&t=56s at 33:27. On the one hand, Anthony Quinton says that a monad has ...
2
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3answers
123 views

When is causality false?

If we say that A causes B, when will this be false? Had it not been A, it would not have been B. Is it only false in the case when it is not A, but is B?
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1answer
90 views

Resolving the divide between logic and emotion, and their presence in causality

I've always questioned the dissension between logic and emotion. Whether it is right to disassociate emotion as this is seemingly logical, or promote the wellness of emotion. I'm, whether wise or ...
0
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2answers
54 views

Broad Observations of Agnosticism

So thinking about agnosticism, where one believes only that they are ignorant of god, or any preceding entities behind causality, as I interpret it. I had the question of: "what causes the belief ...
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5answers
493 views

Why can there only be one necessary being, as opposed to two or thirty seven?

I was reading about apologetics the other day and read as part of the causal argument for God's existence that there cannot be more than one necessary being (cause), meaning that there is only one God,...
0
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1answer
70 views

Is there any reason to think that time is necessarily flowing “forwards” rather than backwards, or another direction completely? [closed]

If we accept that our perception of the world and the actual objective truth of the world in itself are disjoint - that we cannot know certain (or perhaps any) truths about the world - then we ...
1
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1answer
145 views

How is Hume's criticism of causality tied to his epistemological presuppositions? What responses can be offered by challenging them?

Hume once criticized the principle of causality, claiming that the causal connection between two objects was a projection of the mind. To what extent is Hume's criticism of causality linked to his ...
3
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3answers
270 views

Cause and effect

A standard argument for the existence of God is the Kalam Cosmological Argument. The first premise of this argument is that if something begins to exist then it must have a cause. My question is this. ...
7
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2answers
322 views

Kant and causality as custom

According to Hume, causality cannot be found in "things themselves", nor can it be empirically accessible. Instead, it is we, the observers, who attach causal relations among things merely because we ...
2
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0answers
27 views

Has anyone described what the universe must be like for agent-caused free will to be possible? [duplicate]

Let's define free will as the ability for a human being to make a choice that does not completely depend on the history of the universe. The universe may be assumed to be indeterministic. Any simple ...
5
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4answers
290 views

Can a thing have more than one final cause?

I have not been able to find anything on the Internet that answers this question. I also haven't been able to think of anything that has more than one final cause, as defined by Aristotle. For ...
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2answers
282 views

What philosophers, other than Schopenhauer and Nietzsche, examine “will” first, before “free will”?

It seems to me that talk about free will is premature, until 'will' itself has been examined. As Hume noted, we don't have any direct experience of "causality"... two events follow each other and we ...
5
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1answer
1k views

What is the “Law of Causality”?

Is there a Law of Causality? Or a principle of Causality? Someone used that in an argument with me and I couldn't find much information on the subject. Thank you in advance.
4
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2answers
180 views

What kind of fallacy attributes cause to chance when the cause is unknown?

What kind of fallacy is it if one attributes a cause to chance when a cause is unknown? e.g., Scientists don't know why X, therefore X must be due to chance. Take for example the masses of leptons. ...
10
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4answers
268 views

When trying to identify causality, do we assume “nearness” between cause and effect?

When asking people what causes what, it seems that they assume that causality has something to do with "temporal nearness" and "space nearness". That is: If I turn on the light switch and the lamp ...
0
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1answer
123 views

Does this example prove that an infinite causal regress is impossible? [duplicate]

Let's suppose that a soldier wants to shoot a bullet, but in order to so he must receive an order from his superior, and his superior must himself receive the order from his superior .... if this ...
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5answers
1k views

If we live in a simulated world, doesn't there have to be a first world that's real?

There are people who believe we live in a world simulated on a computer. That computer must have been built in either another computer generated world or a real world. If it has been made in another ...
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5answers
657 views

Does Quantum Entanglement Disprove the Principle of Locality?

Regarding the debate between quantum mechanics and determinism I have encountered a problem I can't find the answer to. It is my impression that in order to solve Bell's inequality you would have to ...
2
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1answer
46 views

Does Epictetus State “Only One Cause Motivates Us”, Or “One Cause More than Others”?

1. Question: From Epictetus, Discourses, 1.11, (Perseus English Link): Is Epictetus implying there is only ever just one cause for our actions? Or, is Epictetus arguing there is one cause which ...
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4answers
1k views

How does Quantum Mechanics affect the modern account of free will and determinism?

In the edition of Feb/Mar 2016 of the Philosophy Now Magazine says: Under Feel Free to Differ it says: [...] Determinism itself comes in different flavours. Hard determinism of the most absolute ...
14
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7answers
664 views

Is there a causal influence of the mental on the physical?

Regardless of whether the mental is ultimately physical or not... doesn't the impact of human knowledge (science, mathematics, etc) on the world (ie: technology, agriculture, basically everything), ...
4
votes
3answers
90 views

How does the removal of an impeding cause generate an effect?

How does Aristotle or a medieval scholastic commentator like St. Thomas Aquinas explain how one cause can impede the action of another cause? Or, conversely, how does the removal of an impeding cause ...
3
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1answer
101 views

Does a rejection of the principle of sufficient reason result in blurring the distinction between being and non-being?

Celestine Bittle in 'Reality and the Mind' holds that if we do not grant that there is a reason for being rather than non-being, then there is no actual distinction between being and non-being since ...
14
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6answers
2k views

Does causality always require an arrow of time?

For empirical facts, it seems obvious that causality requires a time flow for the concept to make sense: A causes B implies that A happened before B. Is it ever possible to have a causal ...
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11answers
12k views

Does the impossibility of an infinite regress prove God exists?

I'm strictly discussing one aspect of God: God as the First Cause. I am excluding all other qualities of God defined by any religion or belief system -- including the notion of God as a sentient being....
17
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3answers
715 views

How do defenders of libertarian freewill reconcile it with constraints imposed by the laws of physics?

Libertarian freewill is the position that we have some measure of metaphysical freewill. Per this position, a free agent at a given point in time is able to freely select a course of action among ...
3
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1answer
76 views

Hume's epistemology : impressions, causality, and judgment ?

I'm thinking about the phrase of David Hume that suggest that causality fills the world of beings. I don't know how to understand that. This phrase indicates that causality makes experiences possible ?...