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Questions tagged [causation]

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2 answers
73 views

upward downward topdown bottomup causation

can u tell me more about upward and downward causation . Is it same as bottom up and top down causation. What about one cause having lot of effects and one effect having lot of causes ? Any chart/...
1 vote
1 answer
51 views

Act and Potency Prescinded From Causality in Thomism

Did the Thomistic Commentators, including but not limited to Cajetan, prescind potency and act from causal relations? In other words, did they consider the notion of potency and act as separate from ...
5 votes
0 answers
86 views

Sheldrake's Fields as Formal Causes

Why do we not consider fields as formal causes, especially in light of Rupert Sheldrake's analysis of morphogenetic fields? How does Sheldrake's hypothesis of formative causation challenge our ...
2 votes
1 answer
332 views

Is Duff's test of failure just the contrapositive of "D intends a consequence of his action if he acts with the aim of producing that consequence"?

Isn't 2 (Duff's test of failure) just the contrapositive of 1? I can rephrase 2 as 2.1. If the result didn't occur, would D regard himself as having failed in his plan? The logical contrapositive ...
7 votes
7 answers
2k views

Can the absense of something be a cause?

I wonder, can the absence of something be a cause? My first inclination is to say yes. For example, if someone is in a room with no air, the lack of air will cause them to die. But what really is the ...
4 votes
6 answers
1k views

Causation in physics equation

Granted that physicists have always been concerned about causation, the laws of physics stated in terms of equations have nothing to say about causation. Are they correlational laws, causal ...
2 votes
0 answers
31 views

what is difference between "trumping preemption," "preemption," and "not trumping"?

I'm reading Lewis's paper "Causation as Influence," and I understand the example of the Major-Sergeant command as a case of trumping preemption, while the example of Suzy and Billy throwing ...
1 vote
0 answers
30 views

The question about "trumping" in Lewis's "causation as influence

In Lewis's "Causation as Influence," in section 1.4 titled "Trumping," Lewis describes a scenario as a case where a causal chain can be said to preempt a potential causal chain ...
-1 votes
2 answers
84 views

What is causation?

I suppose the common idea of “causation” to me seems like it is supposed to reduce to physical causation, at least this is a standard worldview in modern times. In other words, the implied metaphysics ...
14 votes
6 answers
9k views

Is the idea that "Everything is energy" even coherent?

There are many New Age websites claiming Everything is energy. Does this even make sense in philosophy of physics and metaphysics? How can something be "made out of energy"? As far as I ...
7 votes
8 answers
674 views

Is the principle of cause and effect bound to material?

I am having a hard time finding an answer to my question. The reason I’m asking it is to figure out if cause and effect could have existed before the universe was created. If anyone has insight on ...
4 votes
1 answer
55 views

Reference request for texts on causation

I have been very interested in causation lately. I am especially interested in whether it can be defined at all, or it must be taken as a brute fact. I would love to read some texts on causation, and ...
7 votes
1 answer
76 views

Does ontological commitment to unobservables in science give one ontological commitment to causality?

If we have ontological commitment to an unobservable like electrons, are we ontologically committed to the causal relationship between their existence and the observable phenomena we use to know that ...
5 votes
2 answers
305 views

Causation in physics

Electromagnetic radiation phenomena exhibit a temporal asymmetry: we observe radiation coherently diverging from a radiating source, such the light emitted by a star, but we do not observe radiation ...
1 vote
2 answers
53 views

topdown bottomup approach in complex systems

In continuation to question Topdown bottom up reductionism emergentism my second question is ; in complex system, like the economy, which are highly complex systems where it is often impossible to ...
2 votes
0 answers
70 views

Justification for Aristotle's principle of causality?

[W]hen... a potential is actualized.. something already actual must be what actualizes it. This is sometimes called the principle of causality. (Feser, Edward. Five Proofs of the Existence of God. ...
4 votes
6 answers
356 views

Are all explanations either personal or scientific?

In A New Cosmological Argument, Richard Gale and Alexander Pruss offer up a cosmological argument for a personal God, from the weak principle of sufficient reason (among other premises, but the WPSR ...
4 votes
4 answers
448 views

If X causes Y, where does Y gain its properties from? Are they transferred over from the cause X?

Suppose ball 1 collides with ball 2 which was at rest. Then, ball 2 starts to move too. It is as though the effects property of movement was already contained within the cause and got transferred. Is ...
3 votes
3 answers
82 views

Are there any conserved properties in causation?

Physical objects do seem to operate on other physical objects while all operating under physical properties, i.e. chemical bonds, momentum, mass, energy, etc. A chemical reacts with other chemicals to ...
0 votes
2 answers
94 views

Do descriptions of what exist map to causes recognized by Man? Can we describe coherent models for broad patterns of knowledge? [closed]

EDIT 0 - To clarify, in the table below, the term God would be missing from it's provisional box for humans who map ultimate causes exclusively to non-moral, aka natural, types of cause. Sigmund Freud,...
2 votes
2 answers
64 views

Why wasn't Ayer satisfied with Hume's definition of causation?

He thus laid the way open for the view, which we adopt, that every assertion of a particular causal connexion involves the assertion of a causal law, and that every general proposition of the form ‘C ...
2 votes
1 answer
66 views

Ayer's criticism on Hume's definition of causation

He thus laid the way open for the view, which we adopt, that every assertion of a particular causal connexion involves the assertion of a causal law, and that every general proposition of the form ‘C ...
2 votes
5 answers
98 views

Is causality perpetual? [closed]

Suppose causality were not perpetual, then at some point, it must have been created. Then there was a process that constructed it, i.e. a causal process. But we assumed absence of any causality. ...
2 votes
4 answers
190 views

causation correlation and constraints

We know causation doesn't imply correlation and correlation doesn't imply causation. I was curious to know does constraints implies correlation or causation. If A constraints B and B constraints A ...
0 votes
0 answers
33 views

Which one of Aristotle's four causes is this?

Consider this exchange spoken in a hypothetical dialogue about man choosing his own personality: Every phlegmatic man is made when he realizes that his original fiery disposition will become his own ...
1 vote
1 answer
98 views

What are some examples of inmanent causes and effects in everyday nature?

Reading Spinoza's Ethics I find myself fascinated by the distinction bewteen inmanent cause and transitive cause. In the Ethics comes like so: E1 PROP. 18. God is the indwelling and not the transient ...
4 votes
3 answers
394 views

How do laws of nature enforce themselves?

The Humean view prevailing today is that laws of nature are mere regularities of the empirical events. However, there seems to be a difference between post factum regularities, like the Titius-Bode ...
1 vote
4 answers
229 views

Is there any principle that requires only things that begin to exist have a cause?

William Lane Craig argues that everything that begins to exist has a cause. But what about the reverse? Do things that don’t begin to exist not have a cause? Do things that exist past eternally ...
-1 votes
1 answer
66 views

Can agent causation be a “primitive”?

When we say that the ball falls due to gravity, we don’t ask for why gravity exists or how exactly gravity causes the ball to fall down. And if there is a mechanism, sooner or later we accept one of ...
1 vote
3 answers
114 views

Do qualia cause effects, and if so, do these effects offer survival advantages from an evolutionary standpoint?

Can consciousness (qualia) cause detectable and measurable effects? For example, would we able to tell the difference between a robot that experiences qualia vs. a robot that doesn't, by detecting the ...
5 votes
8 answers
250 views

How are the actions of conscious beings interpreted in terms of cause and effect?

When there's inanimate objects such as two billiard balls, we determine that ball C is the cause of Ball D's movement if C collides with D and shoves it. In addition, because ball C is an inanimate ...
1 vote
2 answers
56 views

Hume says we can't determine a causal connections between objects. Why separate the system into objects at all?

A summary of Hume's perspective is as follows: When we reason about matters of fact to reach new conclusions, we use cause and effect: when a dropped ball hits the ground (observation), it bounces (...
1 vote
2 answers
119 views

Justice and general intelligence systems? [closed]

In a world of general intelligence systems. If an AI causes an accident how is justice served? This maybe due to the overlook of a human who is no longer there. And the reason for that would be it was ...
0 votes
2 answers
69 views

Are there phenomena which are partially spontaneous and partially causal?

Events can be spontaneous or non spontaneous. Spontaneous is defined as occurring without apparent external cause. Non spontaneous events are causal, that is, there is cause and effect. Suppose an ...
3 votes
4 answers
303 views

Does choice exist?

I've been thinking about a few legal quotes that have initiated my investigation into whether or not choice actually exists: A "universal and persistent" foundation stone in our system of ...
0 votes
6 answers
431 views

Please criticize my argument for a first cause

Salaamualykum, I would like this argument to be strengthened by criticism: Everything has a cause, by cause I mean mean something that "therefores it" regardless of your definition. if ...
0 votes
1 answer
130 views

How could we get over a seeming contradiction in first cause causality without jumping to anything impossible?

This post is showing a contradiction in the existence of a first cause, meaning maybe it's not possible for it to exist. You might not get this immediately so look at the second paragraph and read ...
5 votes
3 answers
396 views

Is this a good argument against mental causation?

If mental causation exists, then mental phenomena would affect the bodies of sentient beings. Then the bodies of sentient beings (and only they) would be affected by an additional set of causal ...
8 votes
11 answers
3k views

Do non physical causes exist?

When we decide to move an arm, some argue that it is an example of a mental event causing a physical effect. But doesn’t recent science show that free will may be illusory and from a time perspective, ...
4 votes
7 answers
2k views

Everything must have a cause?

In a possible reality, if something came into existence without something giving rise to it, the fact would be that , there was nothing stopping something from coming into existence without anything ...
4 votes
0 answers
53 views

What kind of physical complexity is related to the axiom of regularity for sets?

Augenstein's exploration in Links between physics and set theory mentions Ulam relating complexity and regularity: There are several sources for appreciating Ulam’s ideas and interests. A collection ...
0 votes
5 answers
153 views

Causation vs. correlation

Neither causation can say they are correlated, nor correlation can say they are causation. Am I right ? Suppose there is no correlation between A and B. Does it mean there is no causal relation ...
-1 votes
4 answers
145 views

How can we establish that causal relationships existed in the past?

From Hume's problem of induction, it is intuitive to me that, for example, "taking aspirin in the past has relieved my headaches" is insufficient to say with certainty that "taking an ...
2 votes
0 answers
104 views

What happens to statements like cause must precede effect for the mental events for this model?

My understanding is that for this model (epiphenomenalism (?)) is there isn't mental causation rather a kind of mapping between physical and mental events? What happens to statements like cause must ...
20 votes
16 answers
5k views

Why is mind interacting with matter any more problematic than matter interacting with matter?

So there's this supposedly an 'interaction' problem for substance dualism, that isn't there for physicalism or idealism. I've never understood this. So as Hume pointed out, we see event a followed by ...
0 votes
3 answers
196 views

Causation with Inductive/Deductive Logic

I'm sofa-philosopher and I have a case I can't quite dismantle. My friend (let's call him John) just made a statement that I find philosophically weak, and I'd like to run it thru you guys. So, John ...
3 votes
2 answers
130 views

Logical relations between reasons and behavior cannot be cause and effect?

I'm listening to this lecture on mental causation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RefjI1lGT-Q&t=1466s At 22:50, the lecturer says, "Hume told us didn't he that there can't be logical ...
7 votes
6 answers
4k views

What is the difference between correlation and causation?

What is the difference between correlation and causation? Pirates and Global Temperature Example For example, how do we know when we're dealing with correlation only and not also causation here? more ...
1 vote
1 answer
162 views

Does Hume undermine determinism? [closed]

The problem of induction (kind courtesy David Hume) states that causality isn't deductively justified. Determinism, predicated on causality, isn't justified. Ergo, free will is (at the very least) ...
2 votes
2 answers
268 views

What is this idea of causality being articulated?

So I wanted to ask about the kind of causality when someone says something of the sort: "Communism made these people destroy their own society" or "I have a brilliant idea now I will ...

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