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Questions tagged [causation]

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Is Duff's test of failure just the contrapositive of "D intends a consequence of his action if he acts with the aim of producing that consequence"?

Isn't 2 (Duff's test of failure) just the contrapositive of 1? I can rephrase 2 as 2.1. If the result didn't occur, would D regard himself as having failed in his plan? The logical contrapositive ...
0 votes
0 answers
19 views

Can the concept of antisets be used for a neo-mechanist causal set theory?

Background information: "Causal Approaches to Scientific Explanation," sec. 1. My takeaway here is looking at individual existential quantifications, i.e. quantifying over individual causal ...
-1 votes
4 answers
113 views

How can we establish that causal relationships existed in the past?

From Hume's problem of induction, it is intuitive to me that, for example, "taking aspirin in the past has relieved my headaches" is insufficient to say with certainty that "taking an ...
13 votes
6 answers
7k views

Is the idea that "Everything is energy" even coherent?

There are many New Age websites claiming Everything is energy. Does this even make sense in philosophy of physics and metaphysics? How can something be "made out of energy"? As far as I ...
3 votes
0 answers
85 views

What happens to statements like cause must precede effect for the mental events for this model?

My understanding is that for this model (epiphenomenalism (?)) is there isn't mental causation rather a kind of mapping between physical and mental events? What happens to statements like cause must ...
19 votes
16 answers
4k views

Why is mind interacting with matter any more problematic than matter interacting with matter?

So there's this supposedly an 'interaction' problem for substance dualism, that isn't there for physicalism or idealism. I've never understood this. So as Hume pointed out, we see event a followed by ...
0 votes
3 answers
137 views

Causation with Inductive/Deductive Logic

I'm sofa-philosopher and I have a case I can't quite dismantle. My friend (let's call him John) just made a statement that I find philosophically weak, and I'd like to run it thru you guys. So, John ...
3 votes
2 answers
100 views

Logical relations between reasons and behavior cannot be cause and effect?

I'm listening to this lecture on mental causation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RefjI1lGT-Q&t=1466s At 22:50, the lecturer says, "Hume told us didn't he that there can't be logical ...
7 votes
6 answers
3k views

What is the difference between correlation and causation?

What is the difference between correlation and causation? Pirates and Global Temperature Example For example, how do we know when we're dealing with correlation only and not also causation here? more ...
1 vote
1 answer
114 views

Does Hume undermine determinism? [closed]

The problem of induction (kind courtesy David Hume) states that causality isn't deductively justified. Determinism, predicated on causality, isn't justified. Ergo, free will is (at the very least) ...
2 votes
2 answers
241 views

What is this idea of causality being articulated?

So I wanted to ask about the kind of causality when someone says something of the sort: "Communism made these people destroy their own society" or "I have a brilliant idea now I will ...
2 votes
2 answers
77 views

What is the definition of libertarian free will?

I've seen similar questions asked once or twice on here, but I wasn't able to find a satisfying defense of libertarian free will. The answers seemed to be kind of scattered. So, I wanted to make ...
0 votes
4 answers
112 views

Do preceding events cause subsequent ones in a four-dimensionalist world?

I feel like this question has a good chance of having been asked here before, but the first ten-odd "similar questions" listed by the site when I composed the title didn't cover what I'm ...
1 vote
4 answers
170 views

Are things "caused" by the butterfly effect actually caused by them?

I once read that even a humble medieval peasant merely had to sneeze to cause events hundreds of years in the future: "Not just Napoleon but the humblest medieval peasant had only to sneeze in ...
1 vote
2 answers
145 views

Causation vs correlation in the context of physics

How to know whether A and B is causal or correlated? Is it correct to say that physicists have always been concerned about causation? The laws of physics are stated in terms of equations that have ...
0 votes
4 answers
165 views

Is butterfly effect always happening?

You are sitting at front of house with warm tea. Right when you drinking it with glass, there is vehicle accident at street of front house. If you didn't drink it at that time before, will the ...
5 votes
3 answers
163 views

Does Newton's first law of motion contradicts causality?

First, English is not my mother tongue and hence maybe the expressions I will use are not very accurate. Causality as I understand is when there is a change, then there is a preceding event "...
4 votes
7 answers
2k views

What would reality be like without causality? [closed]

If there were no physical laws of causality (law of gravitation, etc.) would there be "events", what would happen in the world when we act in our day to day life's? Trying to imagine a ...
2 votes
1 answer
140 views

Who has defended a non-causal (emanationist) concept of strong emergence, compatible with reductionism?

Often in debates about emergence, an opposition is set up between (strong) emergence and reductionism. These are seen as incompatible alternatives. In particular, if one believes in downward causation,...
0 votes
0 answers
39 views

An argument against Hume's idea of necessary connection

In section 7 of the Enquiry Hume talks about necessary connection being an ambiguous metaphysical concept since even though we see events happening one after another (ex. hitting a billiard ball ...
2 votes
1 answer
136 views

How does Spinoza deduce substance must cause itself?

Prop. VII. Existence Belongs to the Nature of Substance Spinoza demonstrates this by arguing substance must be the cause of itself, i.e. existence must belong to the nature of substance (by def. 1). ...
3 votes
3 answers
298 views

causality vs determinism

Does causality implies determinism? Causation is a necessary relation between cause and effect and I consider determinism as "state of the future will be uniquely fixed by the past's state " ...
1 vote
2 answers
93 views

How does a dualist explain changing their mind?

If I'm a monist about the mind and physicalism and/or causal determinism, when I change my mind about some topic, I can posit something causally linked to my mind as changing my opinion. Perhaps I ...
1 vote
2 answers
155 views

What's the difference between a causal relation and a causal and nomic relation?

If a nomic and causal relation is a relation in which something cause something else and this effect is dependent on the properties of the causal object, what is specific in a simple causal relation?
3 votes
3 answers
178 views

What is the difference between control exerted by an agent and causation?

I have my own thoughts about this. Am I on the right track or is there some real philosophy that defines the concept of control differently? In a regular cause & effect scenario the cause ...
12 votes
10 answers
5k views

Is there a cogent argument against the principle of sufficient reason?

As far as I can see, there are no significant arguments against the principle that all events have a cause, which is to say the principle of sufficient reason. (It's important to note that the ...
2 votes
0 answers
27 views

Does Efficient Cause include Preventive Cause as a subspecies?

Aristotle defines 'efficient cause' (in Physics II.3, 194b24 ff) as “the primary starting point from which change or rest originates”. Does the phrase 'or rest' come to include 'preventive cause' (an ...
2 votes
0 answers
102 views

Brute facts and the burden of proof

I'm trying my best to understand Della Rocca's article "PSR", which I believe convincingly shows that that one cannot reasonably hold that some facts are brute while others are not without a ...
7 votes
7 answers
3k views

Is the delayed choice quantum eraser a refutation of principle of causality? How does contemporary philosophy make sense of it?

Causality, as per Wiki Is the relation between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the first event is understood to be responsible for the second. For this relationship ...
-1 votes
1 answer
47 views

Does analysis start with a premise or conclusion?

I'm trying to perform an analysis but I'm unsure which way around the premise and conclusions are. Here is the example: "The circulatory system is able to circulate blood.". Now I'm trying ...
0 votes
1 answer
271 views

Does time have a beginning? [closed]

I'm not expecting to learn individual points of view of those who read this question here (The specific question here is whether time has a beginning - not general ideas pertaining to philosophy of ...
0 votes
0 answers
64 views

Leibniz's theory of subtance and causal interaction - with God

It follows from Leibniz' complete concept theory of truth that substances have no causal interaction with another. But Leibniz also says that created substances depend on God and that God conserves ...
0 votes
3 answers
87 views

If y is a direct result of x, and x is occurring, is y unavoidable?

Suppose knocking over a glass has the direct result of making fall. If you knock over a glass, will it fall, no matter what?
6 votes
8 answers
901 views

Can logic be without time?

I think logic is dependent on time. My reasoning is that all of the basic logic concepts are based on axioms that are observations in time (so basic that they do not require proof). This then leads ...
10 votes
3 answers
4k views

What did Wittgenstein mean by saying that the belief in the causal nexus is a superstition?

In the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Wittenstein says: 5.1361 The events of the future cannot be inferred from those of the present. Superstition is the belief in the causal nexus. I'm ...
1 vote
0 answers
44 views

Are patterns prior to causes? Which philosophers are hesitant to believe there really are causes?

Most people and most philosophers seem to strongly believe in causation. I would like understand what philosophers have to say about how to go from believing in just patterns to causes too. Are the ...
26 votes
9 answers
25k views

Is infinite regress of causation possible? Is infinite regress of causation necessary?

For a number of reasons — including perhaps a desire to feel that we have a complete understanding of where we came from, or at least an understanding which is completely sufficient for all of ...
2 votes
3 answers
263 views

Free Will as Incoherent (What's wrong with this argument?)

Is this a sound argument? Free will is a cause that is neither determinism nor stochastic. Causes are either deterministic or stochastic. Free will is an incoherent entity All incoherent entities do ...
10 votes
3 answers
995 views

Are the experiences of the "flow of time" and of "cause and effect" qualia?

Physics and biology have no answer why or how we personally experience the color red and we say that the experience of the color red is a quale. Physics also has no answer why or how we experience ...
12 votes
3 answers
645 views

A Neo-Kantian View on Causality?

Quantum non-determinism seems incompatible with Kant’s defense of causality in his Second Analogy. Stephen R. Palmquist however provides an interesting and appealing case against this supposition, ...
1 vote
2 answers
120 views

Is the reason why we can't come up with a perfect definition of causation, that our common idea of causation is diffuse?

I have read a lot about theories of causation lately. None of them define causation satisfactorily. Either you end up with a definition that comes very close to common sense, but at the same time is ...
4 votes
5 answers
391 views

How are 'voluntary' actions possible in the scope of Sam Harris's framework of free will (its absence actually)?

Disclamer: I am striving to understand the point of view, not to examine if it is right or wrong (makes sense or not, etc.). I have listened to two audio excerpts by Sam Harris, discussing his views ...
0 votes
1 answer
106 views

Suzy and Billy throwing rocks at a bottle or hitting a bell - are these examples of late preemption?

Regarding causation, late preemption occurs, when a process (cause) leads to an effect, but a backup-process is also set in motion and would have led to the same effect, if the other process wouldn't ...
1 vote
1 answer
40 views

Questions about Reichenbach's Principle and causes

Is "statistical dependences need to be explained causally" an accurate depiction of Reichenbach's Principle? (Rob Spekkens https://youtu.be/n8NRSPCekmI?t=1575) Does one need to accept this ...
1 vote
1 answer
69 views

Is there a Possible World in which Humeanism isn't true?

I'm an amateur philosopher, interested in the work of Ned Hall: Mindscape podcast: Ned Hall on Possible Worlds and the Laws of Nature (Dec-2019) PhilPapers: Humean Reductionism About Laws Of Nature (...
1 vote
2 answers
652 views

What's the difference between "cause" and "allow"?

Let's say person A picks up a pencil and drops it and person B catches it. I think most people would agree that person A dropping the pencil allowed person B to catch it, but did not cause person B to ...
3 votes
1 answer
182 views

What is the relationship between scientific explanation and interpretability?

I am trying to understand the relationship between Scientific Explanation and Intelligibility / Understanding. I believe the former is grounded in the Metaphysics of Causation while the latter is ...
9 votes
8 answers
3k views

Is there any exception to the law of "Cause and Effect"?

I've heard that 'God' is the only exception to the law of Cause and Effect which means that He is not dependent in His existence on anything. Can it be philosophically true? If we accepted this ...
17 votes
7 answers
6k views

Can a lack of knowledge or understanding invalidate a positive claim?

Consider the example of causal determinism. It can be phrased in many ways, all with identical meaning: - The idea that "every event, including human cognition and behavior, decision and action, is ...
4 votes
4 answers
179 views

How does one cause impede the action of another cause?

How does Aristotle or a medieval scholastic commentator like St. Thomas Aquinas explain how one cause can impede the action of another cause? Or, conversely, how does the removal of an impeding cause ...