Questions tagged [complexity]

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Does theism postulate an overly complicated and unnecessary extra step?

One presentation of this argument is put forward by Carl Sagan: "If the general picture, however, of a Big Bang followed by an expanding universe is correct - what happened before that? Was the ...
Mark's user avatar
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23 votes
15 answers
5k views

Does the argument from order apply to God?

Lots of people consider the universe to be too complex, ordered, structured, and too advanced to have come about, without a designer. However, isn’t God the most complex, ordered, structured, and the ...
Baby_philosopher's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
53 views

topdown bottomup approach in complex systems

In continuation to question Topdown bottom up reductionism emergentism my second question is ; in complex system, like the economy, which are highly complex systems where it is often impossible to ...
quanity's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
64 views

Why is the lack of sound proof theory fatal for Second-Order Logic but the practical lack of sound proof theory for FOL benign?

Received orthodoxy says, among the community of logicians, that first-order logic (with predicates, connectives, and variables) is good because it has a sound proof theory and second-order logic (with ...
Fomalhaut's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
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Is it mathematically known what the complexity limit (and class) of a pattern to learn is, for a given machine learning algorithm? [closed]

Given a learning algorithm such as those used in ChatGPT, can we calculate based on the number of neural network parameters what the largest “pattern” the algorithm could learn would be (based on some ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
0 votes
4 answers
89 views

What is the lack of anything (including nothing)? [closed]

To clarify my question, I am not asking what is nothing, I am asking a more complex question, what is the lack of anything, which includes the absence of nothing (not anything), while assuming that ...
One Similarity Many Difference's user avatar
6 votes
4 answers
743 views

Chaos vs statistical mechanics vs complexity science

could someone shed some light on difference between chaos and complexity ? What is the difference both ontological and epistemological between complexity science and statistical mechanics ?
quanity's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
147 views

How can one evaluate the plausibility of an eternal object?

Suppose I told you one of two things. A) A Boeing 747 arose by chance in a scrapyard within a 24 hour period after a tornado flew through it. B) A Boeing 747 always existed. Suppose I then told you ...
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-2 votes
3 answers
148 views

Question about effect

There is an order to the Universe we live in. Roughly speaking, little things affect big things. Not the other way round. This is something you already know: particle physics underlies nuclear and ...
quanity's user avatar
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4 votes
0 answers
52 views

What kind of physical complexity is related to the axiom of regularity for sets?

Augenstein's exploration in Links between physics and set theory mentions Ulam relating complexity and regularity: There are several sources for appreciating Ulam’s ideas and interests. A collection ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
2 votes
8 answers
1k views

Isn't there a very obvious flaw in the Ultimate Boeing 747 gambit?

I have read the Wikipedia article on the Ultimate Boeing 747 gambit, first published by Richard Dawkins, and it seems to me that there is a very obvious problem with the argument that isn't mentioned ...
A-Level Student's user avatar
6 votes
6 answers
302 views

Order/disorder and complexity

What is the relation between order/disorder and complexity ? Sometimes I found the terms confusing and ambiguous. And higher entropy implies low complexity, does not implies low entropy implies higher ...
quanity's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
42 views

Is there a philosophical take on how to come up with metadimensions that characterize complex systems?

In short: I am looking for a philosophical take/theory/way of finding abstract-level metadimensions of complex systems (or any "real" system in general at this stage, if that helps). Details:...
Aman Kabra's user avatar
12 votes
11 answers
2k views

Resisting a classic Buddhist Argument for Mereological Nihilism

I’ve been getting into mereology and this a classic Buddhist puzzle that he recommended. How can these premises be resisted? A. If wholes exist, then either wholes are identical with their parts or ...
Craigory 's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
47 views

Moral Luck and Complex Systems Theory

Is there any rigorous research done into links between Thomas Nagel's concept of 'moral luck,' and complex systems theory and/or game theory. Specifically, modeling ethical decision making in complex ...
Jared's user avatar
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14 votes
7 answers
4k views

Does Intelligent Design (ID) entail an infinite regress of designers, and if so, is that problematic?

We can arrive at an infinite regress of designers as follows: Suppose that X is so complex that it's considered to show evidence of design. Accordingly, we infer that an intelligent designer must be ...
Mark's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
165 views

"Too simple to be simple" (a phrase in category theory) and the concept of absurdity

In category theory as practiced, there is this phrase "generalized abstract nonsense" (GAN), which is often used to cover sections of a derivation/judgment(?) that the audience is meant to ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
-1 votes
3 answers
975 views

What does it mean to exist and not exist? Is it possible to be both and/or neither?

Is it possible for something to exist and at the same time not exist? Also, is it possible for something to neither exist and not exist? Or am I simply asking the same question, but wording it ...
LightweightThinker's user avatar
5 votes
4 answers
582 views

Can the simplicity of a hypothesis be objectively measured?

When two or more hypotheses can explain the same evidence, it's commonly affirmed that simpler hypotheses should be preferred over more complex ones. For example, in response to my previous question ...
user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
68 views

solution, bound or complexity analysis for f(i)=f(f(i-1)+f(i-2)) [closed]

Consider this recursive function: F(i)=F(F(i-1)-F(i-2)) It looks like a Fibonacci sequence. however, it has an extra F on the right side. is there any known reduction available for F? is there any ...
morteza's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
261 views

Does the existence of non-understandable concepts refute solipsism?

First, I am aware that most of the essays regarding solipsism and the existence of philosophical zombies conclude that there is no way to confirm or refute them. From my perspective, there is a vast ...
Vikter's user avatar
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4 votes
4 answers
175 views

Hard stuff made easy?

There is a philosophical assumption, inspired by educational didactics, which consists of thinking that any concept, no matter how intricate, can be presented in simple words and easily understood if ...
Davius's user avatar
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-1 votes
2 answers
225 views

What is consciousness? Is it the ultimate reality of our universe? What implications do the various theories of consciousness have on human life?

Does a child has more consciousness associated with her or her adult form? What about her foetus? If her foetus is not yet properly developed (it has just accumulated a bit more mass and complexity ...
Shubham Kumar's user avatar
12 votes
5 answers
3k views

Is the notion of "Complex System" a philosophy of science? Is it the opposite of Reductionism? Is it related to Holism?

I have tried to come to terms with the notion of "complex systems" of which I heard in one of the lessons at school though without too much depth. I grasp that a complex system is such that ...
Luna's user avatar
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-2 votes
3 answers
93 views

How "fairly sophisticated" could the intersection of mathematics and ethics be?

On page 42 of A Theory of Justice (the 1999 edition), Rawls says that moral theorizing might eventually involve "fairly sophisticated mathematics," and later in the book (page 105) he ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
94 views

Is there a name for the phenomenon where a system that selects for one quality eventually leads to optimizing that quality at the cost of others?

There's a pattern that pops up in a wide variety of systems - biological, economic, social, etc - and can occur whenever survival and propagation within the system is determined by how well members ...
Empiromancer's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
34 views

Is there a way to indicate NP^{\prod_i^P} or coNP^{\prod_i^P} like in polynomial hierarchy?

In know that in polynomial hierarchy I was wondering if there exists a way (and if it does make sense) to indicate or .
Luke's user avatar
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-1 votes
2 answers
139 views

Is "too complex" evidence useless?

Is "too complex" evidence useless? E.g. studies on social phenomena, which are really complicated. The reason they are really complicated are e.g.: If they study people, then their cognition allows ...
mavavilj's user avatar
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2 votes
2 answers
55 views

What are some non-living things that can spontaneously increase their complexity? [closed]

I mostly have cave crystals that grow on their own on my mind, along with perhaps river channels that change their shape over time - but perhaps there are some other, better examples. Also, the more ...
Slavus's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
75 views

What are the current best explanations as to why does division of labor work? [closed]

What are the current best explanations as to why does division of labor work? It seems like black magic in complex economies.
mavavilj's user avatar
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3 votes
5 answers
191 views

Does the complexity of the world defeat explanation?

It is not a very uncommon feeling in us, that of feeling the nature of the world too hard, too complex, too unattainable. Is there any philosophical reasoning in this matter or at least a name to use ...
user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is there a fundamental difference between strong and weak emergence?

Weak emergent properties are said to be properties of a large system that can be predicted or derived by computing the interactions of the system's constituent parts. Strong emergent properties of a ...
user289661's user avatar
3 votes
4 answers
190 views

Emergent Complexity In Probability Distributions

I originally posted this in Physics SE but was told it's more appropriate here... In quantum mechanics we describe waves of probability or probability distributions. Does this have to or should it be ...
xendi's user avatar
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2 votes
4 answers
428 views

Redefining the Analytic/Synthetic Distinction in Terms of Computational Complexity

I've been reading Kant for the first time and encountered Quine's objections to the analytic/synthetic distinction and am want to agree that they feel a little obscure in their definitions. That is, ...
LivingRobot's user avatar
3 votes
10 answers
492 views

If it weren't for the theory of evolution, would the argument from design for God's existence be justified?

Let's assume that someone is an educated and intelligent person from the 17th or 18th century. They've been through the enlightenment, they know of the scientific method and have a scientific world ...
Alexander S King's user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
200 views

Computational intractability and reductionism?

It seems straightforward to argue that if the variables of one physical (or biological) theory A are shown to be uncomputable (in the Turing sense) as a function of the variables of another physical ...
Alexander S King's user avatar
1 vote
5 answers
530 views

Complex Systems Theory in Philosophic Terms

Given the below paragraph: Complex Systems Theory involves the systematic, scientific and mathematical study of complexity itself, as it is found throughout the natural world. With a view to ...
DVCITIS's user avatar
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3 votes
4 answers
5k views

The Opposite Point of Positivist Epistemology

In the philosophy of science, I wanted to know what is the exact opposite point of the positivist epistemology? Actually I'm not from the philosophy area and thus not familiar with different ...
Zahra E's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
61 views

Schelling's Organic Form Philosophy. Dynamic Systems

Below is an extract from Schelling's Organic Form Philosophy by Bruce Matthews. Two requests: I'm completely new to philosophy and trying make sure I'm understanding the fundamentals; jumped in the ...
DVCITIS's user avatar
  • 155
0 votes
1 answer
95 views

What are some praise of Buddhism in philosophy?

refer back to my older question: https://philosophy.stackexchange.com/questions/16408/what-are-some-criticism-of-buddhism-in-logic What are some praise of Buddhism in philosophy?
Victor's user avatar
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6 votes
6 answers
2k views

Is thinking algorithmic?

I'm wondering about the fundamental differences between human thinking and computer thinking. Is it wise to consider all human thinking in terms of algorithms?
Remi.b's user avatar
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0 votes
3 answers
174 views

Looking for a treatise on philosophy of "smoothness"

Forgive me, I don't know what to call it. During the Enlightenment there came about an idea that the main phenomena of the universe might be represented by simple equations. For example, Netwon's ...
AgilePro's user avatar
  • 176
2 votes
4 answers
1k views

Determinism and P=NP

This one has been busting my brain for quite a while now. As far as physics currently tells us, we live in a world where the physical laws are inductive but not deterministic, because at some ...
Billy Smith's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
178 views

Can anything really be called complex?

What makes something complex? If someones mind can, in reasonable time, understand something considered complex, is it no longer complex? If it's the brain changing in presence of a complex object, ...
Greg McNulty's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
276 views

If the universe is a turing machine, must it be one without an oracle?

According to wikipedia, turing machines can be equipped with oracles that solve the halting problem; but then a new halting problem arises - whether machines equivalent to themselves ie with the ...
Mozibur Ullah's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
935 views

What are the essential differences between Quantum & Classical Turing Machines?

The classical Turing machine comes in a variety of different flavours. The basic version is the one first outlined by Turing, the non-deterministic version allows finite branching at every computation ...
Mozibur Ullah's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
211 views

Is self-consciousness because of complexity?

Suppose I have enough material from the chemistry periodic table and also I have enough power to combine and concatenate them to create a complex human once at a time; Does this complexity guarantee ...
Yasser Zamani's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
252 views

Problem of induction without i.i.d

In this paper of Aaronson's, a proof is given of Occam's razor by appealing to PAC learning. My understanding of Valiant's bounds for PAC learners is that it requires i.i.d. This is often a ...
Xodarap's user avatar
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-1 votes
2 answers
191 views

Does complexity generate more complexity in nature? [closed]

I'm a computer programmer. There is one thing that I've noticed now for some time, and it has obsessed my mind. Does complexity generate more complexity naturally? To understand the example better, ...
Saeed Neamati's user avatar