Questions tagged [epistemology]

Epistemology is the study of knowledge, acquisition thereof, and the justification of belief in a given claim.

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Is it possible to find a counter model for epistemic closure in Nozick's system?

The epistemic closure is that: If S knows (if p then q) then (If S knows p then S knows q). In Nozick's Truth-Tracking Analysis S knows p if and only if p is true S believes that p If p were false, ...
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Confirmatiom theory and background knowledge K

What is the reason behind explicitly stating the background knowledge K when discussing formal theories of confirmation? Excluding the idea that the normal epistemologica practice always presupposes ...
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Is wisdom a priori or posteriori?

I was not sure if the distinction/emergence of wisdom from knowledge gives it any additional or different reasons for being one or the other. So I suppose more specifically, if it helps: if wisdom is ...
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How may the terms “a priori” and “a posteriori” be used in(side) of mathematics?

This question seems either trivial or somewhat vague; let me explain further. I apologize if I am misunderstanding the concepts or missing the point entirely; I am a mathematics student and I ...
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Fallacy by Sherlock Holmes 'Eliminate the impossible, and what remains must be the truth'

In The Sign of Four, Holmes asks Watson: "How often have I said to you that when you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth?" This may be ...
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Is the statement “no form of human knowledge can justify metaphysical absolutes” self defeating?

A common objection to the statement "no form of human knowledge can justify metaphysical absolutes" is that the statement itself is a metaphysical claim. One response is that the statement ...
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Are these valid examples of axiomatic statements?

I'm trying to understand if a couple of statements would be considered axiomatic: Example 1: "murder is the unjustified killing of a person; if there was a murder, then a person was killed ...
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Is this argument for simulated reality really valid?

I was skimming through the wikipedia article on the simulation hypothesis and saw the following argument by Elon Musk: If you assume any rate of improvement at all, games will eventually be ...
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How is The Philosophical Subsector of Epistemology Exemplified in Blade Runner

so as the title suggest I am wondering how epistemology is presented in blade runner. I know that epistemology in basic terms is "how we know what we know", and that is presented through the ...
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Are there any points that can't be made without thought experiments?

Are all thought experiments simply another way to assert certain claims and examples or does it have inherent epistemological value? Edit: is there any point that can't be made without thought ...
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Can we experimentally prove reality?

Can you experimentally prove that you are doing an experiment? Also, can you experimentally prove the person doing the science (the scientist) exists or is real? This is a refutational question on ...
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Defending the Unpopular: Foundationalism

Foundationalism, once considered a valid and popular philosophy, now receives nearly universal contempt. There seems to be a consensus, in both analytic and continental camps, it is dead. Are there ...
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What was Roger Bacon's contribution to the sign-interpreter relation in semiotics?

From some of his quotes that I found on wikipedia and his SEP entries it seems that he considered essential to a sign it's relation to an interpreter and it's signified object. Can someone flesh out ...
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Proof truth is absolute and not relative

First of all, I want to point out I am not any expert in philosophy, so this question is not based in no further readings, but only my own knowledge in logic. Imagine I want to proof the truth is ...
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Is it there a “completely expressive” formal system / logic language?

I wonder whether it exists a formal system such that all (or a considerable number of) the others can be considered as a subsets or fragments of it. I would say that, for instance, First-Order logic ...
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Science as an example of infinitism

In the IEP article on infinitism, §4b, an objection to infinitism called "the proof of concept objection" is described. The problem is: if potentially endless nonrepeating sequences of ...
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What is the nature of the mental images that are perceived by patients who suffer from Charles Bonnet Syndrome?

I am not sure if this question should be asked in the Philosophy or Neuroscience forum as both domains are relevant to this inquiry. Will have a go anyway. One of the defining characteristics of CBS ...
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Why would laws of nature not be reducible to physics alone?

Is there any reason why special sciences like chemistry , biology , neuroscience and psychology would need their own immutable laws that aren't reflective of physical laws ?
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Absolute confirmation of Carnap and consistency condition

In formal epistemology, consistency condition states that: An evidence E can't confirm both H and its negation, not-H. Carnap states that for the concept of absolute confirmation, the consistency ...
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A broad question on Deleuze's analysis of kantian philosophy ( doctrine of faculties)

In Kant's Critical Philosophy ( Doctrine of faculties) Deleuze displays a 2-dimensional analysis of mind faculties (1) faculties defined by the relation between the representation, the object and the ...
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Why can anything be discovered in mathematics at all?

Imagine a Perfect Mathematician that has superhuman abilities -- if you give him or her a formal foundational system for mathematics like ZFC with all the underlying logical machinery, he or she is ...
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Questions on “Bayes or Bust?” by Earman

In bayesian epistemology, we usually find the bayesian theorem expressed in relation with three proposition: H, hypoyesis, E, evidence, K, background knowledge. In particular, in "Bayes or Bust?&...
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Does Plato hold that “the world experienced via the senses is what is real”?

According to the introduction of this article, Plato and Aristotle both held that "the world experienced via the senses is what is real." I do not doubt this point when it comes to Aristotle....
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Is our reality completely illusionary as it is depicted in religions or various philosophical views?

I know that in many religions or in the work of many philosophers the ultimate truth or essence of existence is depicted monist. Some even argue further that all our experience is an illusion- which I ...
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What was Leibnitz's reasoning when he tried to prove machines cannot have consciousness using his “expansion” thought experiment?

I remember Leibnitz once particularly talked about this in one of his philosophy books (forget the book name, maybe Monadology). He said something like if consciousness can be made up of mechanical ...
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What is a counter argument for the proposition that reaching the truth involves abandoning language and other intellectual instruments?

I have a linguist friend of mine who proposes that one should abandon all labels and paradigms to reach the ultimate truth, as they are deceptive. He proposes that you should strip all intellectual ...
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Question about Cogito, ergo sum

As far as I know Decartes tried to prove that he existed from the fact that he was thinking. And he thought this was only proof. My question is following: -- why is the argument brought up above, ...
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Does Bayesian epistemology solve Hume’s problem of induction?

Or, does it just sidestep it? Or, is it just completely unrelated to it? I’m having trouble seeing what the connection might be. It seems to me that Bayesians solve it by saying, take: Your prior ...
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Which field in the natural sciences always requires accurate and precise scientific instruments? [closed]

I am a high school student that believes as many others that natural sciences is an area of knowledge that is about reliable information. However, I see that scientific instruments play an significant ...
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Empiricism and Morality

How would an empiricist develop a moral philosophy without running into the is-ought problem? The Moral Landscape by Sam Harris tries to formulate one but does not effectively resolve the is-ought ...
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Gettier Cases seem absurd and unconvincing

Suppose that Smith and Jones have applied for a certain job. And suppose that Smith has strong evidence for the following conjunctive proposition: (d) Jones is the man who will get the job, and Jones ...
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Resolve the contradiction/paradox [closed]

-We have observed that the color of a raven is black. -Every non-blue thing I have observed in my room is non-raven. -By inductive reasoning, every non-blue thing I will observe in my room is non-...
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Question about the IEP’s (Michael Huemer’s) formulation of phenomenal conservatism

(I posted the identical question on the AskPhilosophy subreddit.) I first learned about phenomenal conservatism under a different name, “the principle of credulity”, from the philosopher of religion ...
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Can it be said, in the Kantian sense of the word “noumena”, that noumena exist?

I know Kant says it. But he also claims that nothing else can be said about noumena, only that they exist. I seem to be strongly convinced that this statement involves a contradiction and therefore ...
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Is there a formal name for the “philosopher's fallacy” or “fallacy of underwhelming exception”?

I'm looking for the name for a particular logical fallacy that I think of variously as the "philosopher's fallacy" or the "annoying middle school kid fallacy", based on the ...
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Should real possibilities be considered a part of reality and, as such, be regarded as evidence?

Can we say, with respect to reality, that "I AM not just What I AM"? That, aside from things actually existing or having been in the past, the real possibilities too must be treated as part ...
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Contributions of Descartes

What ideas did Descartes have about knowledge and reality that were so incongruent with the prevailing neo-Aristotelian paradigm of knowing the real essences of things through abstracting from sense ...
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Book recommendation on the history of philosophical psychology : structure of mind and mental faculties

I'm looking for a systematic survey of the history of philosophical psychology, either an expository text, or a selection of readings arranged chronologically. My orignal motivation regards the ...
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Is the theory of relativity scientifically proven? [closed]

I am writing an essay and talked about a point of of the development in the force of gravity, I talked about Issac Newton’s findings and how they were later corrected by Albert Einstein. Was the ...
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Does sensation/ perception count as knowledge according to Aristotle? And what word does he use to denote this kind of knowledge?

When one wants to take a synoptic view of the history of epistemology, one notices that Aristotle's contribution is almost always explained in terms of scientific knowledge resting on demonstration. ...
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Question from a high school student about role of natural sciences?

I am doing my essay on natural sciences methodology therefore, I wanted to give the example how according to the scientific method, new valid evidence could add to or correct previous knowledge. ...
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Did Zeno of Sidon really write that any geometrical system must have some unstated assumptions?

According to this site Zeno of Sidon argued that even if we admit the fundamental principles of geometry, the deductions from them cannot be proved without the admission of something else as well ...
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Optimal truth assignments for minimizing variation from credences

Suppose I have a set of propositions and "exogenous" credence levels for each proposition i.e. how likely I think it is to be true. Then suppose Ι know that certain logical relations hold ...
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How does one distinguish fact and belief?

I have seen a similar question, but I am looking for the distinction between fact and belief, and not knowledge and belief. Also, I do not seek, necessarily, Plato's view. In order to distinguish fact ...
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Descartes and his taxonomy of ideas

Given the context of philosophical ideas such as tabula rasa, empiricism, and rationalism, René Descartes is known for his philosophy of mind and his attempt to analyze thinking as well as his ...
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Does the practice of firing dissenters from universities undermine the meaningulness of scientific consensus? [closed]

I am constantly bombarded with links to articles and videos by professors, doctors, PhDs and the likes who claim that vaccines are harmful, dangerous and ineffective at preventing infectious diseases. ...
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Who was the first to posit something akin to the falsifiability principle?

Peirce in CP 5.199 writes something very similar to falsifiability principle namely the following: ...But these logicians refuse to admit that we can ever have a right to conclude definitely that a ...
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How would Descartes, Socrates, Hume and Popper respond to psychopathic gaslighting? [closed]

Let's say Descartes, Socrates, Hume, and Popper were up against a psychopath who tried to abuse their minds with gaslighting techniques to win an argument. They would meet the psychopath one by one ...
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How to structure an argument and epistemic defeaters in a professional way?

I'm trying to learn how to present an argument with epistemic defeaters in a professional way. Let's say we have the following arguments when you're inside your home and are considering if it's ...
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Is thinking an activity of a subject?

I am interested in the question of whether thinking must be an activity of a subject. Is it true that thinking has no reality without being a mode of the subject? Could it be possible that there is ...

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