Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [epistemology]

Epistemology is the study of knowledge, acquisition thereof, and the justification of belief in a given claim.

-4
votes
0answers
50 views

Should only philosophy students study logic, ethics, axiology, phenomenology, epistemology, and aesthetics? [on hold]

E.g a physician. Should they not start in any univeristy studying these modules? Actually a lawyer most law schools teach philosophy of law as an elective module. And no social philosophy or ...
3
votes
3answers
122 views

Is fallibilism a better option than absolute certainty?

Fallibilism is the epistemological thesis that no belief (theory, view, thesis, and so on) can ever be rationally supported or justified in a conclusive way. Always, there remains a possible doubt as ...
12
votes
9answers
1k views

Is a proof still valid if only the author understands it?

Some time ago I was reading about the recent Shinichi Mochizuki's proof for the famous ABC conjecture. It's enormous and so incredibly difficult that at that time virtually nobody was able to ...
3
votes
4answers
103 views

Is there another state besides existence and nonexistence?

Today I told someone who said that there is no objective truth the next thing: "For example, we, as humans, cannot know if God exists or he does not but we can know for sure that one of these two ...
1
vote
2answers
120 views

Can one know and not know at the same time the same truth?

How to analyse the fact that , at the age of 6, (1) I knew that : 1 + 1 =2 but, at the same time, (2) I did not know that 1² + 1² = square root of 4 ? Can someone know the first thing ...
0
votes
2answers
55 views

What are some important essays/philosophical views on experiencing things objectively? [on hold]

I'm looking for some names/essays/philosophers on the topic of objective reality. Questions like, "Can we experience anything objectively?" and, "Is there an objective reality?" Anyone have any ...
0
votes
1answer
73 views

What justified consciousness is an experience and not an thing? [closed]

No philosophers has justified that consciousnesses can be measured. Many philosophers have tried to describe the mind, but are there any specific scholars who describe justified methods to describe ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

How can you argue for a classification without assuming the classification?

Assume population x differs from population y by characteristic z. One group of scholars argues that x and y belong to the same class and that z is incidental and irrelevant to the classification. ...
3
votes
6answers
154 views

Would it be sensible to say “I know Santa does not exist”?

Would it be sensible to say "I know Santa does not exist", and more generaly, what do we really say when we say "I know that [some fact]" ? It is a well known principle that "absence of evidence is ...
-2
votes
2answers
74 views

What specific knowledge is purposefully held back by the universities from their students? [closed]

I read a quote once that this is done as a grocer would hold back the knowledge of the second half of a punnet of strawberries being mouldy. I have my theories but was there a specific knowledge set ...
4
votes
1answer
398 views

Moral 'ought' and the Principle of Generic Consistency?

Late philosopher Alan Gewirth introduced the Principle of Generic Consistency, or the PGC, which says that moral agents ought to respect the generic rights of freedom and well-being because they are ...
2
votes
6answers
640 views

Has the Problem of Induction been solved?

The problem as to acquiring knowledge about times where we cannot experiment/observe. For e.g, you haven't seen the future, so you cannot make any definitive statements, or rather, scientifically ...
-2
votes
1answer
77 views

Is there a way to tell which philosophers are correct in their musings? [closed]

Is quoting an authoritative source a useful or effective way to demonstrate that an assertion is correct?
2
votes
3answers
259 views

Epistemology of “Creationism Debate”

Epistemologically, is there any difference between a belief in non-interventionist evolution and a belief in young-earth creationism? If so, what is it? I'm not interested in the question of whether ...
3
votes
1answer
38 views

In Spinoza's Epistemology what role is played by his concept of 'idea'? How do the idea in 'thought' and the object in extension interrelate?

Depending on which among the diverse variety of depictions of the status and possibility of humans being in possession of 'knowledge', Spinoza's Epistemology has been described in various ways. The ...
7
votes
2answers
249 views

Should truth entail possible truth?

It is a well-accepted axiom of modal logic that truth implies possible truth. Is there any philosophical argument against this conclusion? In other words, should truth entail possible truth?
1
vote
0answers
24 views

what does it mean to have philosophical study of something

Because we see there are many philosophical Study at present like philosophical study of education, philosophical study of Judgement etc. Therefore please explain me what does it mean to have ...
0
votes
1answer
116 views

How should “knowledgeability” be defined? Is it merely w.r.t. to best scientific knowledge? [closed]

How should "knowledgeability" be defined? Is it merely w.r.t. to best scientific knowledge? What about things that science cannot measure? Or are there other "reasonable" forms of knowledge? Why ...
0
votes
0answers
109 views

Bayesian epistemology and paraconsistent logics

My philosophical background I read a little on Bayesian epistemology, a while back, and I was both impressed by it and really disappointed that it was not, being a 20th century invention, embedded ...
5
votes
3answers
75 views

Are there writers on the topic of an inherent human bias towards the value of rational thinking?

Some people place humans as 'higher animals' because we are uniquely capable of rational thought, while most other animals are not. This assumes that the trait of rationality is superior to other ...
2
votes
1answer
44 views

Questions concerning Hume's argument for the unknowability of ultimate causes

I'm currently reading through Hume's An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding, and I'm having trouble understanding one of his big arguments in the section entitled "Skeptical Doubts Concerning the ...
6
votes
3answers
105 views

Is it possible to infer the non-existence of a thing?

Is it possible to rationally infer the non-existence of a phenomenon or a thing, because of a lack of evidence? I've heard of the Null Hypothesis - I heard it says that you can infer that something ...
0
votes
1answer
59 views

Questions on Descartes' Certainty? [closed]

1)What is the certainty that Descartes discovers in the Second Meditation? 2)What does Descartes go on to attempt to prove in the Third Meditation and how is this proof related to what was ...
14
votes
2answers
2k views

How did Kant define knowledge?

A recent question about the Plato's formula K=JTB (knowledge is justified true belief) made me curious as to what Kant thought on the matter. In the prefaces and the Introduction to the first Critique ...
1
vote
0answers
50 views

Epistemology: What role does “ intensionality” play in the knowledge relation? Is “ intension” a third term in the knowledge relation?

How to analyse the fact that , at the same time, my 7 y. old nephew (1) knows that : 1+1 =2 (2) does not know that : sqrt (1) + 1² = the absolute value of the cube root of -8. ? Certainly, "...
1
vote
1answer
154 views

Is it possible to track the truth?

Epistemology seems to show that knowledge is always fallible. How can that position be satisfying at all? It seems to me that we are eternally condemned to hope we are going in the right direction and ...
5
votes
3answers
936 views

Definition of Kant's synthetic a priori

My understanding of Kant's synthetic a priori is that it refers to a kind of knowledge that can be deduced, but without reference to experience. This would mean there are two conditions limiting what ...
2
votes
2answers
438 views

How does ethics influence epistemology?

I was thinking about the connection between ethics and epistemology. I understand there is a whole sub-field of philosophy (moral epistemology) that concerns itself with how epistemology affects our ...
7
votes
5answers
313 views

Does 'to believe that P' imply 'to believe that P is true'?

Williams (1973) casually asserts that to believe that P is to believe that P is true. He explains what he means by that: To believe that so and so is one and the same as to believe that that ...
0
votes
0answers
43 views

Help with epistemology homework related to film Shutter Island

I am really sorry to ask this but I need some help regarding the philosophical interpretation of the movie Shutter Island. Hope someone can help me! I need to analyze how does Teddy Daniels know who ...
2
votes
1answer
138 views

ELI5: what is 'Pragmatic Encroachment'?

questions what is 'Pragmatic Encroachment'? what's the limit on what 'Pragmatic Encroachment' counts as a 'pragmatic factor'? does it count just a few things, or just any practical factors? overview ...
2
votes
1answer
66 views

What does Hume's “customary connection” between objects mean?

David Hume writes "All belief of matter of fact or real existence is derived from some object, present to the memory or the senses, and a customary conjunction between that and some other object." ...
2
votes
3answers
194 views

Is Deductive Reasoning Alien to the Material World?

A quick survey of literature: Goel V. Anatomy of deductive reasoning. Trends Cogn Sci. 2007 Oct https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2685028/ García-Madruga JA, Gutiérrez F, ...
4
votes
3answers
190 views

Does the demand for evidence run contrary to faith?

As the title suggests, and in accordance with a recent theme here on philosophy stack exchange, I'm wondering if the demand for evidence runs contrary to faith. My intuitive notion of faith is that it ...
1
vote
2answers
59 views

What irreducible functions constitute thinking?

Because all new knowledge, to be not illogical, must obey logic i.e. every thinking step must be consistent with rules of logic; so can we write an effective procedure/algorithm which may be followed ...
11
votes
11answers
941 views

Can we logically prove that anything exists?

Suppose I want to prove that negative numbers exist. Well, I could easily do that using a mathematical proof. However, all I would be doing is adding another logical object to a list of known logical ...
3
votes
7answers
2k views

How do we know the world wasn't created 5 minutes ago?

How do we know the world wasn't created 5 minutes ago? I'm currently having to write an essay on this question, and working from the assumption that it is indeed logically tenable that the world is ...
1
vote
0answers
149 views

Through what epistemological means is one's gender identity discoverable?

Though the epistemological means through which one's gender identity is often erroneously directed solely at transgender persons, I think --- as a cisgender person --- that it can uniformly apply to ...
4
votes
1answer
201 views

Is the problem of logical omniscience intractable?

Vincent Hendricks and John Symons notes the following about epistemic logic: Epistemic logic gets its start with the recognition that expressions like ‘knows that’ or ‘believes that’ have ...
2
votes
1answer
56 views

Is there anything in epistemology beyond exploration+reinforcement learning (RL)? [closed]

I am trying to build consciousness in artificial intelligence. The general mechanism is that agent (randomly or based on some preexisting knowledge) performs some actions (gets some knowledge, makes ...
4
votes
3answers
133 views

Do picture proofs of the Pythagorean theorem make it empirical?

As I understand it, the Pythagorean Theorem, which defines the metric for Euclidean space, is said to be strictly mathematical in the sense that it is derived from a set of purely theoretical axioms (...
5
votes
4answers
4k views

How does Locke's realism differ from Kant's realism?

I've been studying Locke recently and I'm having trouble understanding how his epistemic position differs from Kant's, and by implication, why did Kant see his epistemology as being so revolutionary ...
1
vote
0answers
60 views

Is there a rigid model for distinguishing opinion, informed opinion and fact consistently and unambiguously?

Is there a rigid model for distinguishing opinion, informed opinion and fact consistently and unambiguously? What makes this confusing is that depending on the context, it's possible to deviate from ...
2
votes
1answer
53 views

Is there a traditional concept for virtues that inform our ideas of what we can know?

Is there a traditional (singular and delimited) concept for virtues that inform our ideas of what we can and can't know, virtues that mean that their bearers show prudence (I can't know I'll roll a ...
0
votes
1answer
46 views

Does Kant’s argument against idealism refute Cartesian epistemology?

While Kant arguably manages to show in section 65 of the Critique of Pure Reason (“Refutation of Idealism”) that the concept of a self existing through time cannot be reconciled with skepticism of the ...
2
votes
2answers
123 views

Is beauty a property?

If beauty is not a property, because it is subjective, then why is the color red a property? Seeing a color is subjective, not only it is subjective, but we cannot confirm we see the same color, and ...
0
votes
3answers
214 views

Did any philosopher make the claim that mathematics can be as illusory as visual information?

The Greeks postulated that the world we observe may be just an illusion and Kant based some of his philosophy on that very idea. From that idea, came the idea that mathematical truths are more certain ...
9
votes
1answer
389 views

A Neo-Kantian View on Causality?

Quantum non-determinism seems incompatible with Kant’s defense of causality in his Second Analogy. Stephen R. Palmquist however provides an interesting and appealing case against this supposition, ...
6
votes
7answers
9k views

Do good explanations have to be true?

Is it so that whenever one gives an explanation to a question starting from 'why' or 'how' the explanation that we receive in return always is true in nature? From one perspective, an explanation is ...
1
vote
3answers
86 views

What are some of the paradigm shifts in how we think about logic and rationality in the history of philosophy [closed]

I am wondering if there was any shift or big revelations about logic that occurred in the history of philosophy. I am thinking it's highly likely, because if you read some of the thinkers during ...