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Questions tagged [epistemology]

Epistemology is the study of knowledge, acquisition thereof, and the justification of belief in a given claim.

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1answer
180 views

Is it provable that epistemically possible (possible for all I know) does not imply possible?

Here is an argument that it is not. Let's start with some equivalences: X is epistemically possible iff X is possible for all I know iff not (X is impossible given what I know) iff X is not ...
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3k views

In greek philosophy, what is the difference between “gnosis” and “episteme”?

In greek philosophy, Plato especially, what is the difference between "gnosis" and "episteme" ? Both apparently designate different types of knowledge, but I couldn't find any precise description of ...
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110 views

Embryo stem cells and the concept of “person”

I have to do a very good,clear and simple presentation on embryo stem cells so that everyone can understand. I have done the part of biology regarding this cells but I have to do the part that regards ...
4
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1answer
140 views

Does Valberg's “personal horizon” entail life after death?

The personal horizon is, Valberg contends, the subject matter whose center each of us occupies, and which for each of us ceases with death. This ceasing to be presents itself solipsistically not ...
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2answers
181 views

How has big data affected theory formation, underdetermination and the realist/construtivist debate? [closed]

How has [or will] the prevalence of “big data” – the exploding plethora of information and computing power to correlate it – impact[ed] (i) the scientific method’s theory/hypothesis formation, (ii) ...
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2answers
700 views

What are atheism and agnosticism? [closed]

(Apologies for the crazy length question) Whenever the thorny issue of theism vs. atheism comes up -- especially on the internet -- a further issue always seems to arise concerning what these ...
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3answers
480 views

Can correspondence and coherence views of truth be compatible?

If in the course of interacting with an external world, a person is creating a set of coherent knowledge about this world, then there should be a mapping between their beliefs and the external facts. ...
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4answers
1k views

Is induction as a means to reach a conclusion rational?

According to Humes's argument, induction by its nature assumes a uniformity that is not justified. This is a very deep and interesting observation, and a point often used by the religious to justify ...
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2answers
267 views

Prerequisites for Michael Dummett texts

I want to read Michael Dummett's The Logical Basis of Metaphysics. Is it hard to read ? I would like an answer for the same question regarding his other texts. Do I need a prior exposition to other ...
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0answers
258 views

Does knowing imply knowing that you know? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Do we know whether we know something? I have come across this idea a few times now that knowing does not imply knowing that you know. However, I am having troubled ...
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2answers
229 views

Indirect Realism – what are the main objections?

In dialog with others about philosophy, I have generally assumed that the basis of epistemology is a settled question – I. E. that the Locke/Russel/Popper approach, that our worldview is a hypothetico-...
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138 views

Metaphysically, what comes before the cognitive ability to make distinctions?

Descartes, for example, makes the distinction between body and mind by recognizing the body as an idea born from 'extension' and the mind as an idea born from 'consciousness'. He further recognizes '...
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109 views

Reductionism as explanation of facts

I was wondering why is so frequent to hear explanations in science relying on what -in philosophical terms- is called reductionism. Do you have any idea why explain and reduce it to minimal part of ...
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1answer
300 views

How are beliefs restricted by an objective reality?

Consider the following belief A human can survive if they don't drink water for 1000 days We knew from biology that this is practically improbable as there are very few people who can survive for ...
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2answers
232 views

Measurement devices and empiricism

In the first physics lecture I ever visited, the professor shortly demonstrated the fallibility of our senses with a spinning disc optical illusion to justify the use of measurement devices. He didn't ...
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3answers
992 views

What are the main objections against solipsism?

I am looking logical arguments and scientific evidence that undermine this view.
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467 views

How is the concept of “beyond word” viewed in many school of thoughts?

This is my review on the concept of "beyond word": Taoism and Buddhism seems to share that wisdom can't be grasped intellectually. In Zen practice, the koans are presented as nonsensical questions so ...
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142 views

Why “philosophy never ends” for the tractarian Wittgenstein?

In the Prototractatus Wittgenstein wrote an additional section (called 6.55) which is seen as a possible third solution to the matter of building a perfect system of logic. This conclusion was ...
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5answers
2k views

Was Kant right about space and time (and wrong about knowledge)?

According to Kant our empirical experience is synthesized from sensations through categories. Apparently, unconscious "productive ability of imagination" mediates the process using the schemes of ...
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1answer
120 views

Is there any relation between an Argument and corresponding conditional?

In my philosophy class, where we cover theory of knowledge, I leaned about Gettier problem. Gettier's counterexample to JTB is following: From A has Ford which is justified false belief, B can deduct ...
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291 views

Explaining Quine's dismissal of the circularity problem in naturalistic epistemology

In "Epistemology Naturalized", Quine acknowledges the possibility of the circularity criticism of naturalism, but goes on to say ..such scruples have little point once we have stopped dreaming of ...
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90 views

Is there any study about how half-baked philosophies encourage maladaptive thoughts? [closed]

There are many schools of philosophy that advocate refuting perceived phenomena, for example: Taoism: the bad equals the good, why be afraid or avoid the bad ones? Science: before proving it ...
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3answers
93 views

What does it mean for a statement if we cannot disprove it?

In the following link (http://www.importanceofphilosophy.com/Metaphysics_ExistenceExists.html) the authors are basically arguing that there exists some truth that we cannot disprove by any other ...
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1answer
225 views

Can kantian categories only be applicated to objects given by the senses?

The question is inspired by the comments of this answer by @PédeLeão and I think it deserves a question of its own to have room for clarifying this. Possible candidates Kant, in German, has pretty (...
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268 views

Epistemology of “Creationism Debate”

Epistemologically, is there any difference between a belief in non-interventionist evolution and a belief in young-earth creationism? If so, what is it? I'm not interested in the question of whether ...
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6answers
769 views

Has the Problem of Induction been solved?

The problem as to acquiring knowledge about times where we cannot experiment/observe. For e.g, you haven't seen the future, so you cannot make any definitive statements, or rather, scientifically ...
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154 views

Nondisprovable Claims

I have been thinking about the following dialogue for some time. It consists of some arguments I've come up with for both sides, and includes the idea of Russel's teapot. Suppose X is a proposition ...
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151 views

Why do some philosophers argue that we do not know, a priori, that something thinks?

The Cartesian argument seems to explicate the fact that I necessarily know that something thinks, and that I necessarily know that something thinks even if I don't checking the world to verify whether ...
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4answers
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What do optical illusions, or other illusions, say about our perceptions or senses in general?

I guess I'm more looking for clarity here than anything else. I've been reading about the illusions that stage magicians perform, and also found web sites containing optical illusions, but I haven't ...
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2answers
87 views

Is there an accepted term for the idea that: “an idea's validity is increased by the number of proponents”

Is there a field or term which can be used to describe conjecture on the notion that: The validity of an idea is related to the number of proponents/opponents of the idea. Such a field would ...
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3answers
389 views

Difference between Science and Arts according to Mae Jemison

Here is a quotation from Mae Jemison: "Science provides an understanding of a universal experience. Arts provide a universal understanding of a personal experience." Could you help me making sense ...
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1answer
102 views

Is physicalism an unfalsifiable position?

A follow up from this question: is materialism a self refuting position Does physicalism include epistemological principles that make it impossible to disprove by its own standard ? If I am a ...
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1answer
160 views

Aside from logical representations, what are other ways philosophers approach representing knowledge?

Of course different arguments can be neatly spelled out in logical symbols, but logic isn't sufficient for all kinds of knowledge. I know the issue is represented in different ontologies in the ...
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1answer
156 views

What is the common term for 'epistemological preference'?

I got this term explained to me that was called epistemological preference which is basically your preference for acknowledging the truth. There are four categories: Truth by authority - this is ...
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1answer
67 views

Where did Kuhn draw a parallel with Quine's thesis of the indeterminacy of translation?

About Thomas S. Kuhn, In the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy I read: Early on Kuhn drew a parallel with Quine's thesis of the indeterminacy of translation (1970a, 202; 1970c, 268) Which is the ...
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1answer
304 views

What are some good examples of how structuralism is used in the humanities?

I'm aware that Levi-strauss used structuralist ideas in anthropology - are there any simple examples of how he used these ideas. I'm also aware of it being used in literature - how is that done. Are ...
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1answer
129 views

Knowing whether a discipline is science or philosophy [duplicate]

There are certainly no clear boundaries within science and philosophy. Science is about knowledge of nature, hypothesis, tests and repetition, and philosophy is about knowledge generated purely by ...
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1answer
501 views

Why did ancient Greeks think of “heart as seat of soul”?

What does this actually mean and why did some Ancient Greek philosophers seem to believe that the heart was the seat of the soul?
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1answer
297 views

What is the ontological basis for sentience arising from complexity?

Recently I read a comment that most physicalists believe that some threshold of complexity must be surpassed prior to any sentience being exhibited. I've heard of similar ideas a lot, but I've never ...
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3answers
169 views

What standards exist for developing a philosophical model?

Coming from the natural sciences, I typically see a scientific model as follows: A scientific model takes all available evidence and attempts to ascribe a relating structure to all this information ...
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3answers
476 views

What is the word for… human thinking / imagination / understanding is limited by human experience

(Forgive my lack of accurate wording, English is not my first language, in addition I'm not a philosophy expert.) I cannot recall the word I have seen once, describing a theory where human ...
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3answers
164 views

Does Math, or analogically Language really have any impact on our “Thoughts”?

Here I see many say, language has an important impact on our thoughts. But according to this question, Foucault in the preface to The Order of Things wrote how he 'laughed out loud' when he ...
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2answers
183 views

All philosophers are nerds. So, no squares are circles [duplicate]

Can the above argument be valid? If it can, I want to know why, as far as I see, even though the conclusion (no squares are circles.) is true, it doesn't seem to be following the premises (not a ...