Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [epistemology]

Epistemology is the study of knowledge, acquisition thereof, and the justification of belief in a given claim.

3
votes
1answer
280 views

Are all Informal Logic really just Formal Logic in disguise?

Are all systems of informal logic really just systems of formal logic that have not yet been understood mathematically?
3
votes
2answers
90 views

Reductionism as explanation of facts

I was wondering why is so frequent to hear explanations in science relying on what -in philosophical terms- is called reductionism. Do you have any idea why explain and reduce it to minimal part of ...
2
votes
2answers
73 views

Does Sokal & Bricmont's book offer proof of the vacuity of Post-Modernism? Can any schools of Philosophy be proven to be pure Sophistry?

Is Sokal & Bricmont's lambasting of Post-Modern Intellectuals proof of the vacuity of Post-Modernism? Does this offer us a hope at proving that some schools of Philosophy can be proven to be pure ...
1
vote
3answers
296 views

Does Bitcoin disprove solipsism?

According to Wikipedia, solipsism is the philosophical idea that only one's own mind is sure to exist. In 1993, Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor proposed the idea that one could use proof-of-work to ...
0
votes
3answers
132 views

How can one use a phenomenon in science to calculate anything? [closed]

When doing science in any field the goal is to obtain knowledge. How can one be justified in using ideas that are classified as a phenomenon? Yet be considered the mainstream? Example. Scientists ...
0
votes
3answers
90 views

Referring to a subject

I have a couple of questions to an assignment for my bachelors course in Philosophy. It is regarding Timothy Williamsons book, 'Knowledge and its limits' that we are reading and discussion. I have ...
3
votes
6answers
534 views

Can we establish the truth by eliminating the impossible

What conditions would have to hold for Sherlock Holmes' dictum, 'Once you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, no matter how improbable, must be the truth', to be true ?
1
vote
1answer
138 views

How Relativistic is Social Constructivism?

Social Constructivism is a theory that cuts across a number of social science and humanities disciplines. Its fundamental claim is that certain aspects of social reality are not mind-independent. In ...
7
votes
9answers
530 views

Why does science carry so much weight in philosophy when it is highly fallacious?

Science works like this: We observe some phenomenon X. We form one or more hypothesis about what the relationship between X and something else might be. We evaluate the predictive power of the ...
11
votes
1answer
262 views

What are the similarities/differences between how Kant thinks 'noumenon' limits understanding compared to C.S. Peirce?

Kant stated in Critique of Pure Reason, pg. 273: What our understanding acquires through this concept of a noumenon, is a negative extension; that is to say, understanding is not limited through ...
1
vote
0answers
88 views

What are counters of the anthropic principle

The anthropic principle states that observations of the Universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it. Some people say that it explains why this universe has the age ...
1
vote
2answers
129 views

What does it mean when something is called “fundamental”? [closed]

Most philosophers and scientist alike, talk about the "fundamental" parts of science in reductionist terms. But, I wanted to ask how do those "fundamental" parts of science appear in non-reductionist ...
1
vote
1answer
98 views

Knowing whether a discipline is science or philosophy [duplicate]

There are certainly no clear boundaries within science and philosophy. Science is about knowledge of nature, hypothesis, tests and repetition, and philosophy is about knowledge generated purely by ...
3
votes
2answers
252 views

Was Aquinas a foundationalist?

Foundationalism is, generally speaking, the belief that a group of undoubtable beliefs 'ground,' or 'justify' other beliefs. As of late, foundationalism has fallen out of favor in many different ...
1
vote
3answers
124 views

Philosophical Writing at a Graduate level

I need some book recommendations or other source recommendations on where to find a good book on the actual act of writing philosophy. I won't be able to attend graduate school for philosophy ...
8
votes
1answer
355 views

What is the philosophical notion of “intelligibility”?

Can you please point me to philosophical discussions of intelligibility or of what counts as intelligible? — or to an accepted intelligible view of intelligibility, if there is such a thing (pun ...
1
vote
0answers
78 views

Does ontological claim not have its separate existence?

Considering these definitions: Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Epistemology ...
8
votes
1answer
285 views

Why substitutivity doesn't work in an intensional context?

I was trying to grasp some more insights on the difference between intensional and extensional. I started reading this article by Melvin Fitting on intensional logic. It seems interesting but I ...
2
votes
1answer
105 views

What does epistemological phenomenon mean by?

A great Kashmiri Shiava philosopher or AchArya Somananda who started Pratyabhina school said this: Ignorance is not an ontological reality but an epistemological phenomenon. I can understand the ...
0
votes
0answers
670 views

What is the difference between Propositional Justification and Doxastic Justification

I'm not understanding the difference between these two terms. Here are my two definitions: Propositional justification is justification that one has for believing something (whether or not one in ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Further reading on a unique aspect of scientific paradigms

In the Structure of Scientific Revolutions Kuhn makes an off-hand remark that it seems like, in science, paradigms achieve a near-universal acceptance that rarely happens in non-scientific fields. ...
2
votes
2answers
322 views

What is Nietzsche's source of immediate knowledge in Beyond Good and Evil?

In Beyond Good and Evil, Section 16, Nietzsche uses "immediate certainties" in quotation marks. Who and from where is Nietzsche quoting this, or is he using the quotations marks to speak ironically? ...
3
votes
1answer
164 views

What can be considered as scientific thinking ?

I am very naive in philosophy. Is it right to say positivism is the belief that all truth can be known by verification by experience? If so doesn't Hume's criticism of induction already refute this? ...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

The clay theory of the universe

The Aristotelian notion of hylomorphism involves the form/matter duality where the matter in question is not the atomist conception we learn in physics, but a kind of primordial clay that all forms ...
4
votes
0answers
67 views

Kant's Transcendental Apperception and al-`Ilm al-Huduri

What is transcendental apperception in Kant's Philosophy? Is it an instance of knowledge-by-presence (al-Ilm al-Huduri) in Islamic philosophy (especially Mulla Sadra's al-Hikmah al-Mutaaliyyah)?
9
votes
1answer
360 views

For Husserl, how can we know things in themselves?

I don't quite understand the nature of "going back to things themselves". How does Husserl break away from Kant?
1
vote
1answer
65 views

What is covered as part of a definition?

A cat is defined as an animal with this scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Carnivora Suborder: Feliformia Family: Felidae Genus: Felis But, if ...
2
votes
2answers
214 views

Mathematics and René Descartes

Why are axioms of mathematics not recognized by René Descartes? How can they be untrue? Can we not treat them as basics which are absolute and build upon them?
4
votes
1answer
78 views

According to Aristotle, can knowledge of geometry exist outside of particular subjects?

In the Categories, Aristotle gives the example of Socrates' knowledge of grammar for something that is 'present in' a subject, i.e. inseparable from it. That makes sense to me: if Socrates dies, his ...
3
votes
1answer
167 views

What do Heidegger and Brandom think knowledge is?

I just finished reading An Introduction to Feminist Epistemologies by Alessandra Tanesini, and while I got quite a lot out of it (seriously, I was totally unfamiliar with the field, and now I want to ...
10
votes
1answer
354 views

What are the philosophical consequences of employing computers to do science and mathematics?

In recent years the steadily increasing computing capacity of computers has led to a lot of new areas in science. In most cases the computer is used to process huge sets of data which cannot possibly ...
3
votes
3answers
488 views

Is everyone able to learn philosophy? If not, what kind of person is able to learn philosophy? [duplicate]

Is everyone able to learn philosophy? If not, what kind of person is able to learn philosophy? Does learning philosophy require a certain intelligence or talent? If I start at the age of 18, is it ...
1
vote
2answers
78 views

Which group is bigger, the one of things we can write about, or that we can feel?

Which group is bigger, the one of things we can write about (in any language (including programing)), or the one of the things we can feel through our senses (including those things that machines help ...
5
votes
1answer
104 views

Implication of Rorty's concession to Ramberg that true statements “get things right”?

Richard Rorty (1932-2008) was the paradigmatic deflationist re the concept “truth.” He was an epistemic naturalist and historicist, an instrumental pragmatist, anti-realist/essentialist, and ...
0
votes
3answers
188 views

What can be bigger than Absolute Everything or it is the biggest concept?

What can be bigger than Absolute Everything or it is the biggest concept, the one-above-all concept, which encompasses all things without exception (tangible, untangible, things that we can imagine ...
1
vote
0answers
62 views

Does reliabilism fall to the problem of induction?

From what I've gathered, reliabilism states that epistemic justification occurs when someone forms a belief via truth-conducive methods. However, doesn't this fall to the problem of induction? Isn't ...
10
votes
4answers
329 views

Is faith an epistemology?

Is faith an epistemology? Is faith a way people come to know things? I was thinking about religion and god and also the book written by a modern philosopher Peter Bogohsian (a manual for creating ...
1
vote
5answers
127 views

Is there a fact of the matter? , a case [of the matter]?

Wittgenstein once said [and may have later recanted] that the world is everything that is the case, the totality of facts not of things, and that that world is determined by those facts, and they're ...
2
votes
1answer
58 views

Is this a good argument against epistemic closure?

My belief is that epistemic closure is false. My argument relies on mathematics. In mathematics, one may know the axioms of number theory or set theory as true, but one probably doesn't know all the ...
3
votes
4answers
133 views

When do descriptions of objects qualify as “known” vs “unknown”?

Forgive the perhaps poor phrasing. This example is lifted from Scott Aaronson's Why Philosophers Should Care About Complexity Theory (pg. 9-10) and it poses an interesting question. Consider the two ...
3
votes
1answer
316 views

Has, as Richard Rorty hoped, solidarity successfully replaced objective truth as the aim of cognition?

It seems relatively clear that Richard Rorty's postmodern project of eliminating "objective Truth" as something that inquiry and cognition can (reasonably?) hope to attain, or aim for, has to a large ...
4
votes
2answers
137 views

Nondisprovable Claims

I have been thinking about the following dialogue for some time. It consists of some arguments I've come up with for both sides, and includes the idea of Russel's teapot. Suppose X is a proposition ...
8
votes
5answers
325 views

How to Respond to this Argument about Faith?

I've seen the following situation come up several times, and wanted to know what a common response was. Suppose Fred and George are arguing about a proposition X. Fred takes a faith based position on ...
4
votes
2answers
83 views

Popper vs the Argument from Ignorance

Isn't Popper's epistemology a form of Argument from Ignorance? "We assume it is true if it has not (yet) been falsified." But the fact that it hasn't been falsified doesn't make it true; assuming ...
5
votes
1answer
137 views

Is the Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness Falsifiable?

I was reading an article on Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness in the latest edition of Philosophy Now. The article says: IIT has radical implications. If IIT is true, we could in ...
5
votes
2answers
100 views

If we aren't approaching the final theory, does it mean there's an infinite number of natural laws?

A lot say that with every next step we make in science comes always a set of new questions. I think this means there's an infinite number of questions we can ask about the natural laws. And that means ...
2
votes
3answers
293 views

The will to truth or the will to untruth

I have begun reading Nietzsche's Beyond Good and Evil and have been sitting with his very first section of the book, where he opens with a series of questions pertaining to the will to truth. He asks ...
-1
votes
2answers
164 views

Does anything exist outside present experience?

Is there any identifiable attribute to truth other than EXPERIENCE of it appearing to be true ? Is there any more ' truth ' to it ? Things we've believed to be true for millennia have been provided ...
2
votes
1answer
72 views

What do we gain from subjective experiences?

We have subjective experiences (SEs), which often mirror the outside world. But metaphorically speaking, we also have an “inner eye”. For example, if I look at a black square table in a white room ...
2
votes
3answers
2k views

Can something be both objective and subjective to me at the same time?

Many of us understand subjectivity as the opposite of objectivity; that they are mutually exclusive concepts. Evidence for that is all around; for example, take Wiktionary: subjective (adj.): ...