Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [epistemology]

Epistemology is the study of knowledge, acquisition thereof, and the justification of belief in a given claim.

7
votes
0answers
241 views

Are humans becoming more hive-like? Does this have philosophical implications?

Have any philosophers taken up human hive-like behaviour and its implications? EO Wilson and others have outlined eusociality, a mode of group selection acting in addition to selection at the ...
7
votes
0answers
79 views

How does Quine effectively shift from points he has made about knowledge acquisition to conclusions he makes about knowledge simpliciter?

Quine propagated forward an approach to epistemology wherein there was no need of any sort of justification "beyond observation and the hypothetico-deductive method" (Quine 1981). Quine is going ...
4
votes
0answers
55 views

Who came up with the notion of a properly basic belief?

I first heard about so-called properly basic beliefs in the context of discussions about belief in God. Moreover, when I do a Google search for the term "properly basic belief," I get a bunch of ...
4
votes
0answers
67 views

Kant's Transcendental Apperception and al-`Ilm al-Huduri

What is transcendental apperception in Kant's Philosophy? Is it an instance of knowledge-by-presence (al-Ilm al-Huduri) in Islamic philosophy (especially Mulla Sadra's al-Hikmah al-Mutaaliyyah)?
3
votes
0answers
42 views

Are there writers on the topic of an inherent human bias towards the value of rational thinking?

Some people place humans as 'higher animals' because we are uniquely capable of rational thought, while most other animals are not. This assumes that the trait of rationality is superior to other ...
3
votes
0answers
66 views

Looking for a book to compliment Zammito and Mohanty in understanding the ethos of post positivistic realism

There are two books which I consider to be indispensable to an understanding of contemporary western culture’s post-truth/alternative facts (scientific and cultural post modernism/structuralism/...
3
votes
0answers
133 views

A priori and a posteriori within an axiomatic framework?

I am not a philosopher, so please excuse my limited understanding of these basic philosophy concepts. I am having some difficulty understanding what truly constitutes an a priori statement/truth (I'm ...
3
votes
0answers
58 views

Is there anything left in contemporary epistemology and science from the German Idealism?

Kant, Reinhold, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel.. Is there anything left from the Kantian movement today in the thoughts of knowledge and nature? The question is focused especially after Popper essentially "...
3
votes
0answers
168 views

Connections between concepts

How can it be possible that two concepts have a connection between them? Even when we admit that every such connection is empirical, we have a necessary connection between the concept "connection" and ...
3
votes
0answers
90 views

On the distinction between “objecthood” and “knowability” in Kantian philosophy

What pre-Copernican philosophy treats as two distinct matters-objecthood and knowability-are thus [in Kant's CPR] treated as one. [...] In pre-Copernican philosophy, there is a clear ...
3
votes
0answers
55 views

What was Putnam's position re truth and/or word/world relationship at the time of his death.

The formidable philosopher of science and mathematics, Hillary Putnam, died last year, at 89, shortly [relatively] after his retirement. His was an intellectually peripatetic career. Though he ...
3
votes
0answers
66 views

are Wittgensteins propositions analytic or synthetic?

Wittgenstein provides a logical analysis of propositions in the Tractatus; does he there admit the Kantian distinctions between analytic/synthetic and a priori/a postereroi divisions; or does his ...
3
votes
0answers
357 views

'Ought' and the Principle of Generic Consistency?

Late philosopher Alan Gewirth introduced the Principle of Generic Consistency, or the PGC, which says that moral agents ought to respect the generic rights of freedom and well-being because they are ...
3
votes
0answers
111 views

Parsing the actionable in standpoint theory

A recent Hugo Schwyzer article laid out the following explanation of "Strong Objectivity": We can never adopt a true “view from nowhere.” We can defy gravity in outer space, but we can never slip ...
2
votes
0answers
32 views

Does bayesianism accept the idea of knowledge

In bayesianism, you get probalities for the truth of any given statement. As I understand it, this can never be 100%. Since there is no "most certain" you can be, does that mean there is no conception ...
2
votes
0answers
36 views

What does Hume's “customary connection” between objects mean?

David Hume writes "All belief of matter of fact or real existence is derived from some object, present to the memory or the senses, and a customary conjunction between that and some other object." ...
2
votes
0answers
103 views

AGI and Quine's conundrums:underdetermination and holism

How has [or will] the prevalence of “big data” – the exploding plethora of information and computing power to classify, categorize and correlate it, combined with Artificial General Intelligence, or ...
2
votes
0answers
128 views

Does Psychology benefit Philosophy?

This question got me thinking: It is widely held that Philosophy precedes the Sciences, birthing them. and continue to inform them. It is also evident that there are times when science has informed ...
2
votes
0answers
108 views

Do we need knowledge, defined as “Justified, True Belief”, at all?

The Justified, True Belief account of knowledge is problematic and none of the solutions proposed seems to solve all possible Gettier problems (at least, that's what I have come to believe). Do we ...
2
votes
0answers
56 views

How to construct a proposition about God (which is not a thing, nor a non-thing)?

I am reading a paper right now by Andrey V. Smirnov, published in the journal Philosophy East and West, Vol. 43, No. 1 titled Nicholas of Cusa and Ibn Arabi: Two Philosophies of Mysticism. Both ...
2
votes
0answers
157 views

Relationship between Kant's logic and predicate logic

My question relates to the relationship between Kant's logic and predicate logic. My intuition is that Kant's notion that some ideas transcend the bounds of logic, is evidence for the insufficiency ...
2
votes
0answers
49 views

How can we understand the “canvas” of Poincaré's representative space?

In speaking of the nature of representative space, Poincaré introduces the idea of a flat surface, or "canvas" if you will, upon which a painter might paint: "Our representations are only the ...
2
votes
0answers
67 views

Just what is it that makes todays theoretical posits so different, so appealing?

... from those of yester-years, or yester-millenias? Westerhoff, writes in his transaltion of the Nagarjunas Madhyamakarika (Verses on the Middle Way) that: The idea of fire-atoms as ultimately ...
2
votes
0answers
120 views

Unity of Apperception vs. Self Consciousness in Critique of Pure Reason

What is the difference between Unity of Apperception and Self- consciousness? From what I gather so far, Unity of Apperception is a particular part of Self-Consciousness in that UoA brings to ...
2
votes
0answers
74 views

How is Descartes Sure of Things When He is “Attending” to Them?

On SparkNotes, Rene Descartes apparently knows some things to be true as long as he is "attending" to them. These clear and distinct perceptions are only indubitable so long as he is attending to ...
2
votes
0answers
284 views

Hypothesis and thesis

Hypothesis means several things, but I think (and Wikipedia roughly agrees) that there are two main senses: A. Epistemological - a tentative affirmation, posed as explanation for a phenomenon. In the ...
2
votes
0answers
92 views

A critique of the epistemoloical models of religion

I'm interested to find any existing critique of the epistemological models by which religions (especially the various branches of Christianity) determine their theological conclusions. What I ...
2
votes
0answers
142 views

Is this a proper counter-example to the causal theory of knowledge?

The causal theory of knowledge says: S knows P iff (1) It is the case that P. (2) S believes P. (3) There is an appropriate causal connection between the fact that P and S's belief ...
1
vote
0answers
17 views

General solutions to the generality problem

The generality problem is determining when to count individuals as part of a group. It crops up in many places. In Epistemology, Reliabilism has a difficult time describing how general processes are. ...
1
vote
0answers
64 views

Have any modern philosophers redone Descartes' Meditations?

With insights we get from the cognitive sciences, and advancement in philosophy in general (such as the coherentist theory of Truth) we would definitely do the Meditations differently.
1
vote
0answers
65 views

Does it matter possessing knowledge about the Universe if it is going to end?

To be specific, I'm referring to physical reality. Moreover, this question might seem awkward at first glimpse. Well, it does not appear that there are any meaningful relations between the end of the ...
1
vote
0answers
30 views

Account of Priori knowledge in Critique of Reason

As I understand, a priori statements are propositions that are conceived independently of one's experience. However, the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy states that The sensible world, or ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Swinburne's solution to Grue

In the new riddle of induction, Swinburne proposes the idea that there is a genuine distinction to be made between the predicate 'green' and the predicate 'grue' in that 'green' is a qualitative ...
1
vote
0answers
13 views

Is it possible to know a priori the statement 'I know mathematical theorem X a priori' providing X is true

I'm looking for arguments against the idea that you can have a priori knowledge of a priori knowledge. Perhaps appealing to an internalist account of knowledge and claim that the justification for the ...
1
vote
0answers
34 views

Does Sosa's modal definition of knowledge beg the question?

In his 1999 paper "How to Defeat Opposition to Moore", Ernest Sosa argues that sceptical, Nozickian tracking, relevant-alternative, and contextualist accounts of the sceptical paradox rely on the ...
1
vote
0answers
53 views

An epistemological comment on Newcomb's paradox

There is a predictor [who is never wrong], a player, and two boxes designated A and B. The player is given a choice between taking only box B, or taking both boxes A and B. The player knows the ...
1
vote
0answers
96 views

Non-euclidean geometry = decisive argument against rationalism?

Why is non-Euclidean geometry, as encountered in relativity theory, always used as the prime counterexample to rationalism – and regarded as pretty much decisive? The parallel postulate was ...
1
vote
0answers
63 views

Is assuming nothing equal to assuming something?

When someone assumes there's something, the general consensus is that it means there was nothing, and he added a layer of "somethingness". I'd like to question that and ask, when someone argues that "...
1
vote
0answers
41 views

Metrics of the complexity/richness of theories

Are there methods proposed to "measure" the complexity of a theory? either quantitatively or qualitatively. Let me explain with an example: I'd say that theories of the type of Hooke's law: F = k.x ...
1
vote
0answers
87 views

What works have been done of applying theories about philosophy of mind to other branches of philosophy?

On several occasions I have heard that Philosophy of Mind is "the first philosophy" of our time. But if this is true, I think thoeries about Philosophy of Mind should be able to be applied to other ...
1
vote
0answers
172 views

Is an epistemological realism-idealism (at the same perspective) possible?

Can an idea/action/creation/perspective be both realistic and idealistic at the same time? For example, when I think of a form, or a matter, can I think about/create it as real and ideal? I know a ...
1
vote
0answers
88 views

What are counters of the anthropic principle

The anthropic principle states that observations of the Universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it. Some people say that it explains why this universe has the age ...
1
vote
0answers
78 views

Does ontological claim not have its separate existence?

Considering these definitions: Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Epistemology ...
1
vote
0answers
37 views

Further reading on a unique aspect of scientific paradigms

In the Structure of Scientific Revolutions Kuhn makes an off-hand remark that it seems like, in science, paradigms achieve a near-universal acceptance that rarely happens in non-scientific fields. ...
1
vote
0answers
62 views

Does reliabilism fall to the problem of induction?

From what I've gathered, reliabilism states that epistemic justification occurs when someone forms a belief via truth-conducive methods. However, doesn't this fall to the problem of induction? Isn't ...
1
vote
0answers
57 views

Are paradoxes a necessary element of everyone representation of the world?

Introduction I stumbled upon the quotation Intelligence is to spot paradoxes. Wisdom is to live by them. from Raheel Farooq according to goodreads.com. I am here not so much interested in the ...
1
vote
0answers
38 views

Textbook(s) on epistemology

I was following a course on Merleau-Ponty​ and realised from the first few readings that I knew too little about theories of truth to truly appreciate what I was reading. Are there any books I could ...
1
vote
0answers
35 views

distinction between solipsism and skepticsm

i have come across this question in UPSC 1996 previous year question paper and I am looking for an short answer in not more than 150 words. i have tried writing an answer taking help of wikipedia but ...
1
vote
0answers
47 views

What consequences (types of) exist in the real world (categorical monoidal logic)?

Springer book http://www.springer.com/la/book/9783642128202 "New Structures for Physics" (which contains lot of metaphysics despite the physics in its title) elaborates categorical and monoidal ...
1
vote
0answers
64 views

On Rousseau's consent and legitimacy

Right now I'm reading Rousseau's Second Discourse and Discourse on Political Economy. Rousseau describes the founding of civil society in the Second Discourse as a step that everyone agrees to, and ...