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Questions tagged [epistemology]

Epistemology is the study of knowledge, acquisition thereof, and the justification of belief in a given claim.

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How does Quine effectively shift from points he has made about knowledge acquisition to conclusions he makes about knowledge simpliciter?

Quine propagated forward an approach to epistemology wherein there was no need of any sort of justification "beyond observation and the hypothetico-deductive method" (Quine 1981). Quine is going ...
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Similarities and differences between an evidentialist justification and a reliabilist justification for a belief?

Evidentialism Evidentialism in epistemology is defined by the following thesis about epistemic justification: (EVI) Person S is justified in believing proposition p at time t if and only if S’s ...
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Does Kant implicitly commit the paralogism of pure reason when saying that to have a representation it is necessary to accom­pany it with 'I think'?

In Caygill's Kant Dictionary entry of 'I Think' there is this part: Kant further claims that 'I think' is the necessary vehicle/form/accom­paniment of experience: to have a representation it is ...
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How is it determined which explanation is simpler?

One of the criteria of IBE is simplicity. How to determine which explanation is simpler if there are two types of simplicity: one type counts the number of hearings, and the other type counts the ...
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The problem of iterative skepticism

I mean the following tactics: Christina: "There is a tree outside in the garden." René: "I grant that this might be right, and even that your sensory information would justify your ...
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Doesn't fallibilism complexify Pascal's wager further?

We can never know whether we have accumulated all the knowledge in the world or not. This is a general statement. For example, a powerful counterargument against the contingency argument might exist ...
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Difference between Carnap and Quine's views

Could someone explain to me, in easy language, what the main differences are between Carnap and Quine's views regarding internal / external questions and realism? Quine called Carnap a Platoist, yet I ...
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Are epistemic probability and empirical probability comparable?

Let me illustrate this question with an example. Imagine you were to compare your credence or your belief of you winning the lottery twice with your belief in the devil’s existence. Some argue that me ...
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Knowing-that-we-know in plenitudinous Platonism

SEP background: If every consistent mathematical theory is true of some universe of mathematical objects, then mathematical knowledge will, in some sense, be easy to obtain: provided that our ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
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What does Moore need the second hand for?

I just read Moores 'Proof of an external world' and I feel like I almost get it. To me the structure seems to be this: He clarifies what 'the existence of things outside of us' is (anything that ...
Guenterino's user avatar
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Examples that tracking theories of knowledge violate epistemic closure

E.g. in this video at 9:00, I have the same question as a user there: At 9:00, I don't see how the example you gave violate the closure principle. If he were in fact looking at a disguised mule, the ...
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What does it mean for something to “break” infinite regress?

When it comes to the cosmological argument, proponents point out that a first cause is needed to stop an infinite regress of causes. In epistemology, foundationalism is used to break the infinite ...
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Looking for source of quote: People that cannot distinguish rocks from coconuts exhibit a pitiable but praiseworthy tendency to die ,,,

I'd like to find the author and source of a quote. I recall it as: People that cannot distinguish rocks from coconuts exhibit a pitiable but praiseworthy tendency to die before reproducing their kind.
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Why is the argument from synthetic a priori cognition to the subjectivity of what is cognized independent of the "appearance" premise?

In Paul Guyer's Kant, section "A Life in Work", the author claims this: this argument from synthetic a priori cognition to the subjectivity of what is cognized is independent of the general ...
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Is it logically coherent to imagine a person who has no prior conception of the world?

I'm working my way through An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, and I've come to realize there's a specific problem I've had with several philosophers' writings: they tend to assume as part of ...
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Question about the IEP’s (Michael Huemer’s) formulation of phenomenal conservatism

(I posted the identical question on the AskPhilosophy subreddit.) I first learned about phenomenal conservatism under a different name, “the principle of credulity”, from the philosopher of religion ...
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Should real possibilities be considered a part of reality and, as such, be regarded as evidence?

Can we say, with respect to reality, that "I AM not just What I AM"? That, aside from things actually existing or having been in the past, the real possibilities too must be treated as part ...
Yuri Zavorotny's user avatar
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What is the "Factive Turn" in epistemology?

In 1967 Richard Rorty edited/published what I consider to be one of the finest philosophical anthologies of the Twentieth Century. The Linguistic Turn: Essays in Philosophical Method, formally ...
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What if the premise of CPR's Transcedental Deduction is wrong?

The transcendental unity of apperception is that unity through which all the manifold given in an intuition is united in a concept of the object. It is therefore entitled objective, and must be ...
Rajan Aggarwal's user avatar
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Hume Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding "Algebra, Geometry, and Arithmetic" from "senses and experience"?

Here are two quotes in Hume's Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding. They seem to contradict one another, and I want to know how/where Hume or his adherents reconcile them. I have not yet finished ...
fyodrpetrovich's user avatar
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Is Kant committing the reflection fallacy? ( Kant's epistemology)

(1) I see a tree. (2) Therefore the tree is the object of my perception. (3) So I see the object of my perception. (4) Hence, without grasping the concept of object in general and subsuming the ...
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Using differential equation to estimate epistemological growth constant

I found some tweets (1,2) describing a philosophy paper as follows: I came across this paper from the academic journal of philosophy that tries to solve a differential equation for an ...
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Explanation vs. prediction in statistics and in the philosophy of science?

In the realm of statistics and machine learning, a lot of discussion has arisen recently around the difference between explaining and predicting: That the two are not the same, and that the difference ...
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Looking for a book to compliment Zammito and Mohanty in understanding the ethos of post positivistic realism

There are two books which I consider to be indispensable to an understanding of contemporary western culture’s post-truth/alternative facts (scientific and cultural post modernism/structuralism/...
gonzo's user avatar
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What to read for an introduction on the epistemology of logic?

I would like to read about the epistemology of logic, preferably at a undergraduate level (not being a philosopher myself). What (text)book should I read for a good introduction on these topics? The ...
GambitSquared's user avatar
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Account of Priori knowledge in Critique of Reason

As I understand, a priori statements are propositions that are conceived independently of one's experience. However, the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy states that The sensible world, or ...
mathnoob123's user avatar
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Aristotle's epistemology: the proper objects of perception?

I think we can safely say that for Aristotle the proper objects of perception are sensible forms. The proper objects of reason are intelligible forms. It is often said that in seeing, sense and its ...
SekstusEmpiryk's user avatar
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On the distinction between "objecthood" and "knowability" in Kantian philosophy

What pre-Copernican philosophy treats as two distinct matters-objecthood and knowability-are thus [in Kant's CPR] treated as one. [...] In pre-Copernican philosophy, there is a clear ...
ΥΣΕΡ26328's user avatar
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Parsing the actionable in standpoint theory

A recent Hugo Schwyzer article laid out the following explanation of "Strong Objectivity": We can never adopt a true “view from nowhere.” We can defy gravity in outer space, but we can never slip ...
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Can the AC-DC argument against infinitism be defused?

Infinitism is the epistemic theory that claims that justification is only achieved by an infinite chain of non-repeating reasons. At first, this feels like the "troll" theory of epistemic ...
viuser's user avatar
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If I know something, should I feel as though I have absolute certainty as to that thing?

I've been trying to wrap my head around the justified true belief analysis of knowledge along with the fallibly justified, true belief analysis of knowledge; and there is something that keeps ...
Dennis Francis Blewett's user avatar
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1 answer
234 views

Difference between the correspondence and the picture theory of meaning/language

Was Wittgenstein's picture theory of meaning/language, as posited in the Tractatus, and which was closely aligned with his analytic realism/logical atomism, simply an elucidation and elaboration of ...
gonzo's user avatar
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Is Logic Pre-Human?

It was German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) who famously said, "animals are poor in world." Although this may be true, I do not see them as being poor in logic. Paleontologists have ...
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How do ethical intuitionists avoid relativism?

Why doesn't ethical intuitionism (the form which actually uses intuition as the foundation of morality rather than some other non-inferential method) fall into relativism? It seems that different ...
edelex's user avatar
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How can Weber's approach be comptabible with evolutionism?

Weber's epistemology is synthesized in one paragraph in Economy and Society (1921): Sociology (in the sense in which this-highly ambiguous word is used here) is a science concerning itself with the ...
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Are instrumental norms supposed to be taken literally?

If we have an instrumental norm such as, "If one wants to be correct, one ought to conclude in alignment with the evidence," is it supposed to be taken literally? That is, does it mean "...
edelex's user avatar
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Can moral truths be known a priori or are they based on experience?

I am currently working on an essay that explores the concept of a priori knowledge and whether or not it can exist. I would love to hear any thoughts or opinions on this topic that anyone may have. ...
cricket900's user avatar
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"Truth" as a description of our cognition versus "truth" as a description of reality

In reading about the feud of foundationalism, infinitism and coherentism, there seems to be some arguments based on how cognition/reasoning works. However, an argument of the form (vaguely put by me) ...
user1113719's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
73 views

A variant for panpsychism of shapes and matter?

What is the name of the variant of panpsychism that argues that not only matter, but also shapes and objects have conciousness?
Maya Rahto's user avatar
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Is analytic philsophy the most associated with "armchair" knowledge and is that subject to change?

*By armchair I mean knowledge one can gain by not going out into the world very far. And by my title I get the impression (perhaps mistakenly) that if armchair knowledge was lessened, so too would ...
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Positive vs negative classes in ontology

I am interested in the nature of ontological classification and whether there exists some form of accepted terminology to distinguish classes that are 'positive' (matching characteristics) and classes ...
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How can Descartes intuit/think without memory?

Descartes presented the Memory response against the cartesian circle. Descartes assumed the reliability of intuition all along. The doubt he laid to rest by proving God's existence is one of memory: ...
tryingtobeastoic's user avatar
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What are the formal semantics of the word "really"?

(This question involves semantics, epistemology, and empirical studies of speaker judgements - wasn't sure if I should post in philosophy or linguistics, hope this is an OK place for it.) I've been ...
Justin's user avatar
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What is the relationship between Kant's idea of the "transcendental grounds of experience" and his " transcendental theory of cognition"

So I understand the former as simply being what must be the case for experience to be possible (the a priori forms), yet I am not so sure of the latter. Does it simply mean that an object always has ...
rux23's user avatar
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How to accomodate hyperintensionality in a Bayesian framework?

Generally, propositions are modelled as sets of possible worlds, and Bayesians define a credence function on the set of those propositions. They then adopt new credence functions in response to new ...
Rando McRandom's user avatar
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What approaches are there to resolving the problem of new theories in Bayesian epistemology?

Bayesianism is thought to have a problem accounting for the development of new theories/beliefs. Since Bayesians would like to proceed by updating prior credences in response to new evidence via ...
Rando McRandom's user avatar
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Do the rules of basic logic have to presupposed to gain philosophical knowledge?

First, let me apologize if my question is nonsensical in any sense. I do not have any philosophical training whatsoever, but I am really interested in some philosophical questions. I was thinking ...
SebastianLinde's user avatar
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399 views

Question about Russell's distinction between knowledge of things and knowledge of truths in 'The Problems of Philosophy'

In his book, Russell distinguishes several types of knowledge. He first distinguishes knowledge of truths, and of things. "the sense in which what we know is true (...) i.e. to what are called ...
Dimen's user avatar
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Question from a high school student about role of natural sciences?

I am doing my essay on natural sciences methodology therefore, I wanted to give the example how according to the scientific method, new valid evidence could add to or correct previous knowledge. ...
General MO7's user avatar
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Material theory of induction: why not abandon induction altogether?

John Norton defends a material theory of induction, based on the idea that universal inference schemes cannot account for the strength of inductive inferences. Whether a specific induction is good or ...
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