Questions tagged [epistemology]

Epistemology is the study of knowledge, acquisition thereof, and the justification of belief in a given claim.

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Relationship between Kant's logic and predicate logic

My question relates to the relationship between Kant's logic and predicate logic. My intuition is that Kant's notion that some ideas transcend the bounds of logic, is evidence for the insufficiency ...
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What was Putnam's position re truth and/or word/world relationship at the time of his death.

The formidable philosopher of science and mathematics, Hillary Putnam, died last year, at 89, shortly [relatively] after his retirement. His was an intellectually peripatetic career. Though he ...
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How can we understand the "canvas" of Poincaré's representative space?

In speaking of the nature of representative space, Poincaré introduces the idea of a flat surface, or "canvas" if you will, upon which a painter might paint: "Our representations are only the ...
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Just what is it that makes todays theoretical posits so different, so appealing?

... from those of yester-years, or yester-millenias? Westerhoff, writes in his transaltion of the Nagarjunas Madhyamakarika (Verses on the Middle Way) that: The idea of fire-atoms as ultimately real ...
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Unity of Apperception vs. Self Consciousness in Critique of Pure Reason

What is the difference between Unity of Apperception and Self- consciousness? From what I gather so far, Unity of Apperception is a particular part of Self-Consciousness in that UoA brings to ...
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337 views

Hypothesis and thesis

Hypothesis means several things, but I think (and Wikipedia roughly agrees) that there are two main senses: A. Epistemological - a tentative affirmation, posed as explanation for a phenomenon. In the ...
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A critique of the epistemoloical models of religion

I'm interested to find any existing critique of the epistemological models by which religions (especially the various branches of Christianity) determine their theological conclusions. What I ...
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198 views

Is this a proper counter-example to the causal theory of knowledge?

The causal theory of knowledge says: S knows P iff (1) It is the case that P. (2) S believes P. (3) There is an appropriate causal connection between the fact that P and S's belief of P. I'll ...
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Materialist Epistemology?

In a normal theory of knowledge, a person's phenomenal consciousness is taken as basic. Thus, the sciences are an attempt at explaining the "world" that affects phenomenal consciousness. Excising ...
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975 views

Is Parmenides a Dualist?

It's commonly understood that Parmenides denied the reality of change. That the world we perceive is an illusion. But is Parmenides better understood as the SEP indicates: Both Plato and ...
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1answer
176 views

Difference between the correspondence and the picture theory of meaning/language

Was Wittgenstein's picture theory of meaning/language, as posited in the Tractatus, and which was closely aligned with his analytic realism/logical atomism, simply an elucidation and elaboration of ...
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223 views

What is the position of the Traditionalist School on Epistemology?

I am at a lower intermediate level when it comes to philosophy, having started by studying Hindu philosophy and the Traditional School of René Guénon, Frithjof Schuon and their ilk. I mainly focused ...
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67 views

Peter Lipton's response to Stanford's problem of unconceived alternatives/ 'underconsideration'

In his book, "Inference to the Best Explanation", Peter Lipton lays out a response to Stanford's problem of unconceived alternatives (also referred to as the problem of underconsideration) by saying ...
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275 views

How to start Philosophy and find the branches that are related to my questions?

From Wikipedia: Ontology: philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Epistemology: study of the nature ...
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41 views

Axiom 4 in epistemic logic

In epistemic logic, axiom 4 says that if I know p, then I know that I know p. What is the philosophical value of such an axiom?
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63 views

What did John of Salisbury write about the concepts of "logical depth and breadth"?

In the Digital companion to Peirce site there is the following text about the logical depth and breadth: …it was between six and seven centuries ago that John of Salisbury spoke of it as “fere in ...
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Roles of sensibility, understanding and imagination in Kant's epistemology

According to Kantian epistemology, there are three falcuties of mind; sensibility, understanding and imagination. Unfortunately, the differentiation between these three are not totally sure to me so I ...
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50 views

The structure of the epistemic regress

I just read this essay on coherentism, and it resonated with a question I have about reconciling foundationalism, coherentism, and infinitism. The gist of the essay is that there are graph-theoretic ...
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68 views

Absolute confirmation of Carnap and consistency condition

In formal epistemology, consistency condition states that: An evidence E can't confirm both H and its negation, not-H. Carnap states that for the concept of absolute confirmation, the consistency ...
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117 views

What was Leibnitz's reasoning when he tried to prove machines cannot have consciousness using his "expansion" thought experiment?

I remember Leibnitz once particularly talked about this in one of his philosophy books (forget the book name, maybe Monadology). He said something like if consciousness can be made up of mechanical ...
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73 views

Contributions of Descartes

What ideas did Descartes have about knowledge and reality that were so incongruent with the prevailing neo-Aristotelian paradigm of knowing the real essences of things through abstracting from sense ...
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32 views

Who are some 19th century philosophers to posit something akin to meaning holism and how did they argue in favor of it?

According to this Whewell debated with Stuart Mill on "Holism vs. Particularism". What were their arguments in support of the 'meaning holism' if they had any?
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"Inference to the Best Explanation if the Best is Sufficiently Good"

The reliability of Inference to the Best Explanation (IBE) is sometimes contested because it may end up recommending the best of a bad lot, which might require a modification of IBE (e.g. contra ...
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Did C.S Peirce ever express anything close to the paradigm shift concept?

Since the study of Peirce seems to have a large number of papers in the philosophical corpus where researchers ascribe to him several concepts that were (re?)discovered several decades after his death ...
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58 views

Did C.S Peirce ever express anything in the same vein to meaning holism?

C.S Peirce's philosophy is considered a predecessor to the logical positivism. In some respects Peirce is also thought as having prefigured several major philosophical ideas that came after logical ...
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'I know the difference between right and wrong' what type of knowledge does this statement talk of?

'I know the difference between right and wrong', which form of knowledge would suit this statement most? Propositional/Factual Knowledge - Know that Knowledge by Acquaintance - Know of Ability/...
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Should an ethical system aspire to rigorous epistemological justification, and is it possible to attain?

There seems to be no ethical system which does not rely on either the generalization of the mind (ie, arguments reliant upon compassion or empathy) or the assumption of some starting value (ie, "...
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Is there any philosophical view on translation in early modern philosophy?

Do you know of any philosophical view on translation in early modern philosophy (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz)?
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Is Polanyi's conception of personal knowledge accepted?

In Michael Polanyi's Personal Knowledge, the "personal" is defined with: This distinction [of personal and subjective] establishes the conception of the personal, which is neither ...
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71 views

How can beliefs be justified when they are always subject to Cartesian skepticism?

It seems obvious to me that after glancing at my watch I "know" what time it is. But this apparent "knowledge" can be explained away by infinitely many skeptical hypotheses. ...
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174 views

According to Kant, while thinking of empty concepts without intuitions, what do we synthesise?

(This will be my last question on this book, for those of you getting bored of my questions). Very briefly I will describe the method of Transcendental Deduction (TD) in an over-simplistic manner, and ...
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56 views

Can somebody explain the second argument of B-deduction in CPR?

For me, the Transcendental Deduction aims at proving two things: Categories or pure concepts of understanding must be applied to the manifold of intuitions, i.e, they are necessary for cognition. ...
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What if the premise of CPR's Transcedental Deduction is wrong?

The transcendental unity of apperception is that unity through which all the manifold given in an intuition is united in a concept of the object. It is therefore entitled objective, and must be ...
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440 views

Are mental objects timeless?

Let's suspend for a moment the How? of the body mind problem and suppose an ontological paradigm where there are two classes of objects: mental and physical. Also that physical objects are spatially ...
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59 views

Can the analytic/synthetic distinction be accounted for as an erotetic difference?

Although Kant was the first to refer to the distinction as such, his belief that there is a form of truth based on predicates-contained-in-subjects actually goes back at least to one definition from ...
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51 views

Why are Gettier cases so challenging to JTB = K?

Relevant I do not understand why the problem of Gettier cases has been so challenging to the theory that knowledge consists of justified true beliefs. Let's take an example from SEP, where you are ...
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what is called the view that all knowledge "bottoms out" in intuition and/or psychological prejudice?

Suppose I see a tree through my window; I naturally believe that there's a tree outside. From my experience, I simply intuit (so it seems to me) the existence of that tree. Of course, I could ...
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Does Kant's concept of 'representations' advocate for any agency as a function of the mind?

Kant never seems to define his usage of the concept of 'representations'. Nevertheless it appears to play a central role in his depiction of the mind's cognitive capability. When he says that 'that ...
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72 views

Some questions about skepticism and the principle of knowledge?

What about this principle? ("if K (P - > ~ Q), then ~ k (~ Q) - > ~ k (P)") (if you know (P implies non-Q, then you don't know non-Q implies don't know P) I learnt about that Nozick gave an anti ...
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83 views

Is Kant committing the reflection fallacy? ( Kant's epistemology)

(1) I see a tree. (2) Therefore the tree is the object of my perception. (3) So I see the object of my perception. (4) Hence, without grasping the concept of object in general and subsuming the ...
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Are the questions "Do I exist" and "Why do I exist" related to metaphysics, epistemology or another branch of philosophy?

Does the universe (or anything) exist? I assume that question would fall under metaphysics. But could it also touch on epistemology (e.g. how we define "universe" or "exist")? Do I exist? To me, ...
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58 views

Uncertainty and evidence

Under uncertainty, precise probability cannot be assigned, see my other question: How valid is assignment of probabilities when evidence is totally lacking, as in Pascal's Wager? In this case, either ...
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Is this an argument about the world or about human cognition?

This is a question about a thesis I have encountered regarding the relation of abstract mathematics ( Category Theory in particular ) with reality and the nature of human cognition. The argument goes ...
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166 views

Two questions on the principle of indifference

(Sorry if it is not within the format of the site to ask two questions like this, please tell me if I should break it up into two separate questions) The principle of indifference states that ...
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How can the position of skepticism avoid becoming incoherent on the problem of the criterion?

Concerning the problem of the criterion, there has been said to be three traditional responses: methodism, particularism, or skepticism. Although other philosophers have proposed that there are more ...
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Can Fallibilism itself be fallible?

It says: from IEP Fallibilism tells us that there is no conclusive justification and no rational certainty for any of our beliefs or theses. So, I am just applying fallibilist theses to ...
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David Lewis and probability

I have read a general overview on David Lewis in order to have an idea of his philosophical perspective and in particular about humean supervenience. I am wondering how Lewis considers probability in ...
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Is there any correlation between Quine’s underdetermination and bayesian issues of old evidence and new theories?

Bayesianism has some faults some of them are the problem of old evidence and the issue of new theories. Are these two problems linked to Quine’s underdetermination? Or are they contrasting it? What is ...
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How can you argue for a classification without assuming the classification?

Assume population x differs from population y by characteristic z. One group of scholars argues that x and y belong to the same class and that z is incidental and irrelevant to the classification. ...
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Epistemology: What role does " intensionality" play in the knowledge relation? Is " intension" a third term in the knowledge relation?

How to analyse the fact that , at the same time, my 7 y. old nephew (1) knows that : 1+1 =2 (2) does not know that : sqrt (1) + 1² = the absolute value of the cube root of -8. ? Certainly, "...