Questions tagged [epistemology]

Epistemology is the study of knowledge, acquisition thereof, and the justification of belief in a given claim.

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Have any modern philosophers redone Descartes' Meditations?

With insights we get from the cognitive sciences, and advancement in philosophy in general (such as the coherentist theory of Truth) we would definitely do the Meditations differently.
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Is psychologism still a thing? What are common rejections of psychologism?

Recently, I learnt that there exist people who go so far as to claim that "mathematics is a branch of psychology". I thought that psychologism was long outdated, in connection with mathematics at ...
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Account of Priori knowledge in Critique of Reason

As I understand, a priori statements are propositions that are conceived independently of one's experience. However, the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy states that The sensible world, or ...
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Swinburne's solution to Grue

In the new riddle of induction, Swinburne proposes the idea that there is a genuine distinction to be made between the predicate 'green' and the predicate 'grue' in that 'green' is a qualitative ...
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Does Sosa's modal definition of knowledge beg the question?

In his 1999 paper "How to Defeat Opposition to Moore", Ernest Sosa argues that sceptical, Nozickian tracking, relevant-alternative, and contextualist accounts of the sceptical paradox rely on the ...
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156 views

Non-euclidean geometry = decisive argument against rationalism?

Why is non-Euclidean geometry, as encountered in relativity theory, always used as the prime counterexample to rationalism – and regarded as pretty much decisive? The parallel postulate was ...
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344 views

A priori and a posteriori within an axiomatic framework?

I am not a philosopher, so please excuse my limited understanding of these basic philosophy concepts. I am having some difficulty understanding what truly constitutes an a priori statement/truth (I'm ...
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107 views

Is assuming nothing equal to assuming something?

When someone assumes there's something, the general consensus is that it means there was nothing, and he added a layer of "somethingness". I'd like to question that and ask, when someone argues that "...
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36 views

Why do we seek to "limit" our scope for the search after truth?

In philosophy and science, we quite often make systematic approaches that limits our thoughts to be as accurate as possible. Examples are endless - basically every logical system, every ...
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What works have been done of applying theories about philosophy of mind to other branches of philosophy?

On several occasions I have heard that Philosophy of Mind is "the first philosophy" of our time. But if this is true, I think thoeries about Philosophy of Mind should be able to be applied to other ...
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205 views

Is an epistemological realism-idealism (at the same perspective) possible?

Can an idea/action/creation/perspective be both realistic and idealistic at the same time? For example, when I think of a form, or a matter, can I think about/create it as real and ideal? I know a ...
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What are counters of the anthropic principle

The anthropic principle states that observations of the Universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it. Some people say that it explains why this universe has the age ...
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91 views

Does ontological claim not have its separate existence?

Considering these definitions: Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Epistemology ...
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Further reading on a unique aspect of scientific paradigms

In the Structure of Scientific Revolutions Kuhn makes an off-hand remark that it seems like, in science, paradigms achieve a near-universal acceptance that rarely happens in non-scientific fields. ...
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112 views

Does reliabilism fall to the problem of induction?

From what I've gathered, reliabilism states that epistemic justification occurs when someone forms a belief via truth-conducive methods. However, doesn't this fall to the problem of induction? Isn't ...
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382 views

Has, as Richard Rorty hoped, solidarity successfully replaced objective truth as the aim of cognition?

It seems relatively clear that Richard Rorty's postmodern project of eliminating "objective Truth" as something that inquiry and cognition can (reasonably?) hope to attain, or aim for, has to a large ...
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64 views

Are paradoxes a necessary element of everyone representation of the world?

Introduction I stumbled upon the quotation Intelligence is to spot paradoxes. Wisdom is to live by them. from Raheel Farooq according to goodreads.com. I am here not so much interested in the ...
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44 views

Textbook(s) on epistemology

I was following a course on Merleau-Ponty​ and realised from the first few readings that I knew too little about theories of truth to truly appreciate what I was reading. Are there any books I could ...
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52 views

What consequences (types of) exist in the real world (categorical monoidal logic)?

Springer book http://www.springer.com/la/book/9783642128202 "New Structures for Physics" (which contains lot of metaphysics despite the physics in its title) elaborates categorical and monoidal ...
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On Rousseau's consent and legitimacy

Right now I'm reading Rousseau's Second Discourse and Discourse on Political Economy. Rousseau describes the founding of civil society in the Second Discourse as a step that everyone agrees to, and ...
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179 views

Are propositions considered to be mind independent or mind dependent?

The primary reason why I ask is to try to contrast the concept of a proposition, with that of a fact, the latter with which I more certain about. A fact, to me, is something that is 100% mind-...
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119 views

How is Descartes Sure of Things When He is "Attending" to Them?

On SparkNotes, Rene Descartes apparently knows some things to be true as long as he is "attending" to them. These clear and distinct perceptions are only indubitable so long as he is attending to ...
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Hypothetically observable

Question: When is it appropriate to assign the property "hypothetically observable" to a thing? The set up is that someone is discussing an object that they claim has some sort of existence. Maybe ...
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Is it possible to adopt the interpretivism philosophy of science when conducting a deductive study?

The philosophy of interpretivism is often associated with inductive studies. Is it considered too huge of a mismatch to adopt this philosophy for a qualitative deductive study? If so, what are the ...
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Carl Hempel's covering law model of explanation in history

According to Carl Hempel in "The Function of General Laws in History" (The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1942, pp. 35-48), explanation in history consists of the "derivation of the ...
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50 views

What are some articles that give reasons for trusting one's perceptions, memory, or reasoning?

Note that by trusting one's perceptions, I mean trusting that one has perceptions, rather than trusting that one's perceptions are "accurate". Preferably, the articles should be rigorous and high-...
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What are the implications of Baudrillard's ideas to epistemology?

I would simply like to know what you guys think... what points does his social theory, including his concept of hyperreality, intersect with theory of knowledge?
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Takes on qualitative pluralism

When considering two theories that are qualitatively contradictory but have identical empirical implications, how can one say that one theory is particularly more valid than the other? Heuristic ...
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Are some religious claims subject to empirical testing?

Almost all (Christian) theists assert that humans experience everlasting bliss in heaven. Is this possible? So the real issue is whether it is logically possible that an unending life (in which one ...
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Is it possible to know of the properties of concrete particulars without having a reference to compare with?

After researching for quite some time, all forms of knowledge about properties of concrete particulars I can think of, rely on a comparison with some sort of reference. Some simple examples might be: ...
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104 views

How philosophers reason about closeness of one theory to the other theory (approximation, learnability, discovery of theory)?

Some theory is tuple of set of axioms (including ones that are statements about data), set of inference rules and set of already deduced theorems (statements) in it. Theory can be discovered by human ...
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Are Thomas Breuer's subjective decoherence and Scott Aaronson's freebits with Knightian freedom the same things in essence?

In his remarkable works (1,2 and their later development 3) Thomas Breuer proves by diagonalization the phenomenon that the observer cannot distinguish all phase space states of a system where he is ...
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what part of philosophy studies the ideas of (individual, attribute, proposition, argument, theory, and science)?

There is the idea of individual and attribute, after there is the idea of proposition, with that we can do arguments. After the idea of proposition is the idea of theory and after the idea of science, ...
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Are moral justifications considered to be epistemologically justified knowledge?

Are moral justifications considered to be epistemologically justified knowledge? Moral justifications don't refer to an objective truth, so I am wondering if these subjective truths can be considered ...
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Questions about consistency and double standards

I'd actually would like to share some thoughts on the topics mentioned in the title so someone could tell me if I missed anything (it's an "is it really that?" type of question).  Are ...
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102 views

Proof truth is absolute and not relative

First of all, I want to point out I am not any expert in philosophy, so this question is not based in no further readings, but only my own knowledge in logic. Imagine I want to proof the truth is ...
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Book recommendation on the history of philosophical psychology : structure of mind and mental faculties

I'm looking for a systematic survey of the history of philosophical psychology, either an expository text, or a selection of readings arranged chronologically. My orignal motivation regards the ...
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53 views

Who was the first to posit something akin to the falsifiability principle?

Peirce in CP 5.199 writes something very similar to falsifiability principle namely the following: ...But these logicians refuse to admit that we can ever have a right to conclude definitely that a ...
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How to structure an argument and epistemic defeaters in a professional way?

I'm trying to learn how to present an argument with epistemic defeaters in a professional way. Let's say we have the following arguments when you're inside your home and are considering if it's ...
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Knowledge and epistemic intuition

Gettier famously argues against the traditional theory of knowledge that justified true belief may not always be knowledge. Basically, his examples can be summarized as whether we can have knowledge ...
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What is a Good, Historically Grounded, Summary or Presentation of Kant's Epistemology

I am looking for an historically grounded book which can introduce me to understanding Kant's epistemology such as he gives in his Critique of Pure Reason and his Metaphysical Foundations of Natural ...
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Contradiction and existence

I would have liked to know if this argument was logical and if it had already been made: Everything exists. The principle of non-contradiction applied to existence is a postulate that does not hold. ...
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What's the closest predecessor to this statement by C.S Peirce?

Peirce wrote the following: if one exerts certain kinds of volition, one will undergo inreturn certain compulsory perceptions (CP 5.9) I suppose it resembles Compte's "theory guides what ...
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Guessing the past - Bayes - Throwing Dart

I'm trying to understand how Bayes formula helps us make guesses about the past. What are your thoughts about the following philosophical metaphor regarding claims about events in the past? Whenever ...
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Bewitched by sortal v natural kind [anti] Essentialism

In Essential vs. Accidental Properties (SEP) https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/essential-accidental/index.html, in the context of natural kinds essentialism, one finds: Notice that one may hold ...
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Reference request regarding 'a priori knowledge' and conscious development

One possible key element about a priori knowledge that would allow a precise understanding of it would raise from the question: is (Kantian) a priori knowledge produced consciously or subconsciously? ...
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Self-evident vs. self-explanatory vs. ...?

How far apart are these descriptions? I was approaching the issue from the perspective of erotetic logic, and my intuition is that self-evidence is when a proposition is evident from its erotetic ...
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Has Semiotics been adopted by any mainstream academic philosophers?

Semiotics, as developed by Pearce, Saussure, Barthes, and others can have very broad applications that overlap with epistemology, logic, and maybe even ontology. I don't believe it is always ...
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What are David Lewis' perfectly natural properties?

I have read a few things on David Lewis either his papers and SEP entry etc. unfortunately I still struggle to understand lots of concepts from this philosopher. First, what are the perfectly natural ...
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Justification for the phenominal/ noumenal distinction?

Cartesian dualism has purportedly been debunked. How does the phenomenal/ noumenal distinction avoid being characterized as the same mistake? Is it really impossible to visualize a symbiosis-in-agency ...