Questions tagged [ethics]

For questions about ethics, a branch of philosophy dealing with morality, justice, virtue, vice, good and evil.

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-4 votes
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Is atheism religion with all attributes? [closed]

To people who are believers, that science proved that God doesn’t exists, I want to remind that science tell that consciousness doesn’t exist too, however obviously consciousness exists. I guess ...
2 votes
6 answers
29k views

Morality is subjective?

I tend to believe that morality isn't all subjective. Society objectifies morality and keep a distinction between good and bad. So even if a person felt (subjective) what he was doing was right, ...
2 votes
2 answers
101 views

Hume's Guillotine

I struggle to understand how logic doesn't validate the deduction of a moral judgement that's not present in the first premise, even if we add a second premise? I might not be profound upon the matter,...
0 votes
0 answers
41 views

WHO WE ARE: An Exploration on The Complexities of Humanity (with an answer to consciousness) [closed]

Bisshash and Satya First, I shall address the concept of truth. To the individual, truth is belief. However, this isn’t quite useful, is it? People believe all sorts of things: invisible deities, ...
11 votes
2 answers
2k views

What are the Moral Sentiments of Capitalism according to Adam Smith?

Despite his legacy as the father of capitalism and authority on jurisprudence especially toward the end of his career, Adam Smith is usually known in ethics and philosophy classes by his classic The ...
3 votes
2 answers
548 views

Is there a quantitative model of Bentham's Hedonic Calculus?

Jeremy Bentham, in Chapter 4 of his 1781 An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation, defines what has become known as the Hedonic Calculus. He states, Pleasures then, and the ...
4 votes
3 answers
239 views

Are all morals grounded in the family structure?

How important is family? Family comes first is an old maxim, if a parochial one. No-one is asking anyone to sacrifice their children by limiting that, but I wonder whether our moral duties only really ...
3 votes
2 answers
130 views

What would be the ethical argument for (or against) taking the initiative to try to “deprogram” someone who is in a cult?

By deprogram, I mean an attempt by ethical means to alter someone’s beliefs (for example, therapeutic conversations). “Cult” is not well-defined, which I see as a flaw in the question, but which it is ...
4 votes
7 answers
865 views

Trying to understand reality lead to understanding useless things?

If one sets his purpose as achieving the truest possible understanding of reality (I know one might die and not achieve it), then doesn't this mean that he needs then to understand all the things that ...
2 votes
4 answers
468 views

How can Kantianism prove the existence of perfect duties?

I heard about Kant's reasoning that lying that you return money or about the leads to contradiction in conception. But how could he even prove that lying under any circumstances leads to ...
-3 votes
1 answer
218 views

What type of fallacy is used here? [closed]

For the sake of argument,Let us say some special group of people use definition of masculinism as "raising voices for Equality between men and women", One fine day, A Man Busy on mobile ...
6 votes
12 answers
3k views

Are morals and justice meaningless? What do philosophers think about them?

I am curious about the concepts of morals and justice. Do they have any objective reality, or are they just subjective illusions that we create for ourselves? Are they meaningless? How can we define ...
0 votes
3 answers
122 views

A bit of help refuting jiwoon hwang's pro mortalism

So today I stumbled upon this paper written by this person named jiwoon hwang. It's about why it is better to cease existing, he uses benatars assymatry to come to a pro mortalist conclusion but ...
2 votes
3 answers
394 views

Classifying the ethical characteristics of entities by cognitive properties, non-human-specific

I am wondering if any theorists have developed a way of classifying entities by their cognitive properties in order to build general theories such as ethics, based on such properties. It should ...
18 votes
6 answers
6k views

Is God either amoral or not omnipotent?

The usual (Christian) justification for suffering/evil in the world created by a benevolent God is freedom of the will. However, the more interesting question is not about the source of evil (which ...
9 votes
6 answers
5k views

Why do we prohibit consensual incestuous relationships?

When talking about sexual relationships between brothers and sisters, our initial intuition might be, “Well that’s just wrong. There’s something immoral about that”. Now, to examine the logic, I ...
3 votes
8 answers
197 views

Why would private property be considered less valid than personal property?

I see personal and private property rights as unconditionally unethical to violate, and I'd appreciate it if someone were to steelman the case that private property rights are less valuable than ...
0 votes
2 answers
98 views

Origin of a story about the dilemma involved in helping the turtle cross the road

I'd like to know the origin of the story I heard/read long ago (translated to English here) so that I can perhaps have a more accurate version and quote it. I did several searches on the Internet ...
1 vote
4 answers
104 views

What is the difference between sublimity and fearsome things? [closed]

What is the difference between sublimity and fearsome things? Is a despot sublime in their immoral actions? I would suggest critical thinking. See e.g. Burke and a "delightful horror"
5 votes
3 answers
177 views

Can moral theories be "elegant" or beautiful or sublime?

It is often said that mathematics has some (peculiar) sort of beauty to its name. Whether beauty attaches as such primarily to the notation/style of mathematical writing, or to the interplay of the ...
2 votes
7 answers
2k views

How much destructive capability should a person have, and why?

In general, how much capability to harm or destroy should any given human have? If humans were effectively barred from even minor forms of destructive capability, would it be a better or worse society?...
1 vote
6 answers
3k views

If God exists why is murder wrong?

In some debate between atheists and theists, the theist will often say something along the lines of; "If you don't believe in god, why is murder wrong?" But can't the opposite be argued better? If God ...
4 votes
2 answers
59 views

What's the best introductory book to philosophy of ethics?

Well there are many suggestions already there and many books available about ethics, but what I want is not just a overly simplified book for a complete beginner. I have spent some time studying ...
4 votes
5 answers
250 views

Nietzsche on balancing service to the creation of (or becoming) the Overman and living a life of ones own choosing?

So, I have been looking into Nietzsche. To be honest, I have thought a lot about Nietzsche for the past 2 years, and I am unsure of what to make of the nature of this need to become the Overman. My ...
2 votes
2 answers
334 views

I wanted to ask about "EGO", how philosophers have defined ego? [duplicate]

Many philosophers have touched the topic of "Ego". For instance, Freud, Buddha, Iqbal and many others. We all have fragile ego. In simple terms, how ego can be defined? What is the most ...
14 votes
12 answers
5k views

How to start learning philosophy and overcome my bias towards mathematics?

I am interested and curious about philosophy, especially topics like morals, justice, ethics, etc. I want to read books that explain the philosophy behind them. However, I am very ignorant and I don’t ...
7 votes
0 answers
2k views

Does the so-called "Copenhagen interpretation of ethics" have a formal name in moral philosophy?

I was recently introduced to the term Copenhagen interpretation of ethics in an interesting blog post that defined it thusly: The Copenhagen Interpretation of Ethics says that when you observe or ...
1 vote
2 answers
76 views

The deception clause in lying

What if I am asked a question, and respond with an untruth I know is untrue, and I don't really care if I am believed, but definitely don't want to be found out (I don't want anyone to know Ive ...
8 votes
12 answers
5k views

When is it ethical to be ethical towards the unethical?

Suppose there are some criminals who have no respect for ethics and will lie/cheat/steal/kill whenever they perceive it could gain them some advantage. Suppose that to treat these people with fairness ...
5 votes
10 answers
312 views

Why is emotivism unpopular?

I grew up in a protestant American household. I worked hard to redefine my beliefs, epistemology, and ultimately my meta-ethical views as those that I could defend. I find that emotivism is easily the ...
2 votes
8 answers
969 views

Is it morally permissible to jump the queue? Can we prove that it's morally permissible?

Is it morally permissible to jump the queue? The situation is: Ken wanted to take a mini-bus. When he reached the bus stop, he found that his friend was in the first position of the queue. His friend ...
0 votes
1 answer
56 views

When does permission equal moral permissibility?

When does permission equal moral permissibility? I definitely feel there is a difference, but am struggling to verbalize it. In Nazi Germany, I may be legally permitted to execute Jewish people, but ...
4 votes
3 answers
328 views

Does the requirement to use preferred gender pronous preclude the participation of people whose faith teaches that gender cannot be changed?

There are numerous cases where the views held by different people clash. Homosexual intercourses are one such obvious example: many religious denominations (for example Catholicism) consider them ...
0 votes
1 answer
169 views

Is "genital autonomy" separable from "sexual autonomy"?

Definitions: "Genital autonomy": the right to decide what happens to one's genitals, even to the point of irreversibly altering them. "Sexual autonomy": the right to decide to ...
1 vote
1 answer
55 views

How does the quasi-realist claim that the claim to moral mind-independence is a moral claim work?

As part of metaethical quasi-realism, a noncognitivist (expressivist and projectivist) position which attempts to justify the use of realist language without committing itself fully to cognitivism or ...
2 votes
1 answer
193 views

What does it mean to 'objectify' a concern?

Source: Think: A Compelling Introduction to Philosophy (1 ed, 1999) by Simon Blackburn   [p 274:] Again, we here uncover a central cause of strife and misunderstanding. For communication is often ...
2 votes
1 answer
176 views

Why does the ethical doctrine of double effect presume "the bad consequence is not a means to the good consequence"?

I trust it's obvious why this presumption looks as it is supposed to - "the bad consequence IS a means to the good consequence"? Consider Herring's example on p. 169 with the surgeon. If the bad ...
2 votes
4 answers
156 views

A problem regarding an impermanent hell

Regarding the Abrahamic hells, one could say that they are absolutely terrible for it is suffering without end, an eternal suffering; but there is a puzzling different type of hell or hells, those of ...
2 votes
2 answers
100 views

Why is natural law ethics based on what happens in most cases? (St. Thomas Aquinas)

Summa Theologica II-II q. 154 a. 2: Nor does it matter if a man having knowledge of a woman by fornication, make sufficient provision for the upbringing of the child: because a matter that comes ...
7 votes
4 answers
827 views

Is the doctrine of modern Human Rights considered to be supreme form of Ethics by modern philosophers?

I am from a suburban place in India and honestly, people usually look towards common sense, combined with some Hindu Ethics to live their lives here. Pretty much nobody knows or cares about Human ...
7 votes
6 answers
4k views

Is there a name for the idea that some actions are good because they solve problems, even if they hurt people?

I wonder if there is a name for the idea that some actions are good because they solve problems, even if they hurt people. For example, if a country has an overpopulation problem and it decides to ...
1 vote
6 answers
1k views

What are the moral arguments for slavery? [closed]

We undoubtedly must have read and heard passionate arguments justifying the abolition of slavery, be it from the clergy, and philosophical and political clerisy; however, what has been absent from the ...
1 vote
3 answers
71 views

When will a Philosopher stop asking questions? [closed]

Apparently Philosophers keep asking questions and "ALL" of their questions involve some form of contradiction, or some form of critical analysis. What will be the "end game" where ...
1 vote
1 answer
37 views

Using the Universal Quantifier, Existential Quantifier, and logical connectives, write a description of a time when somthing bad for you was not bad

The following is an exercise in ethics, logic, the use of the universal quantifier and the the use of the existential quantifier. In the following context, the syntax for the universal quantifier is ...
7 votes
4 answers
345 views

Is there any substantial philosophical rebuttal to the claims about veganism made by Peter Singer?

There is an ongoing debate around the morality of food habits. About this debate, I have only heard one side - the side of the moral vegans. Bentham, Singer and others propose a veganism based on ...
2 votes
2 answers
109 views

Is cultural appropriation bad? [closed]

Cultural appropriation, as a commonly touched-upon concept, could be defined as “taking” something from a “culture” that you are “not a part of”. Naturally, each of the above words and phrases in ...
3 votes
5 answers
452 views

Aggregate utility and the sadistic theatre

Situation A: 12-year-old Emma leads a happy life and gains U > 0 utility. Situation B: Emma is continually raped and tortured for an online audience of consumers of sadistic child pornography. She ...
5 votes
3 answers
449 views

Is it bad to seek power? [closed]

I'm a 17-year-old high school student interested in human nature. I've always been a curious kid by nature, so unfortunately, I ask a lot of questions, especially when something goes against my ...
6 votes
11 answers
5k views

What are valid rebuttals to utilitarianism?

From Britannica, utilitarianism is an ethics concept in which an action (or type of action) is right if it tends to promote happiness or pleasure and wrong if it tends to produce unhappiness or pain—...
16 votes
7 answers
19k views

What does "You go to women? Do not forget the whip!" mean?

As an Iranian citizen I have read most Nietzsche's books which have been translated in Persian/Farsi language as my mother tongue. There are still debates between translators,philosophers and ...

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