Questions tagged [formalisation]

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22 votes
9 answers
3k views

What formal logical systems "resolve" the Liar Paradox?

Short version of my question. What formal logical systems can represent, and seem robust against, the Liar Paradox? N.B. I would like to avoid reference to truth-values, except inasmuch as they ...
19 votes
4 answers
683 views

Is Philosophy formalisable?

This is something that has irked me for quite some time, especially since I come from a mathematically oriented background. Can the field of Philosophy be formalised in the sense that Mathematics is ...
6 votes
6 answers
336 views

Is there any formal language such that any problem in the Universe can be described unambiguously using this language?

I asked similar question on the "Theoretical Computer Science" board and theoretical computer scientists advised me ask it here, in "Philosophy". So... Is there any formal language such that any ...
6 votes
7 answers
527 views

How is free-will formally defined as distinct from determinism, randomness and determinism-randomness hybrid to support moral responsibility?

Usually free-will is assumed by most faith traditions as a prerequisite for moral responsiblity in order to justify eternal punishment. The argument goes as "you are truly responsible for your immoral ...
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5 votes
2 answers
267 views

Rigorous resources on the philosophy of language

I would like to find some introductory resources on the philosophy of language that are also rigorous, as I come from a mathematical background with my interests rooted in mathematical logic. Ideally ...
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4 votes
3 answers
4k views

What's formal philosophy?

Some great logicians and mathematicians (e.g. Gödel) in the past have pointed (perhaps implicitly) to the possibility of formal philosophy (can be referred to as "exact philosophy" as well). I read it ...
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4 votes
2 answers
817 views

How does abstraction/generalization in mathematics fit into inductive reasoning?

I have a question about the nature of generalization and abstraction. Human reasoning is commonly split up into two categories: deductive and inductive reasoning. Are all instances of generalization ...
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4 votes
1 answer
151 views

Introduction to Formal Metaphysics

As I am very interested in Edward Zalta's research in Axiomatic Metaphysics, I wanted to read up on Formal Metaphysics. Would there be some introductory material that would help? Thank you in advance ...
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3 votes
1 answer
274 views

Where should one place quantifiers when translating sentences into predicate logic?

I've been trying to learn formal logic but am somewhat confused. Given the following key, how would I symbolize the sentence "Everyone who trusts Ingmar trusts a vegetarian?" Domain: people Vx: x is ...
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3 votes
1 answer
128 views

Collecting any formalisations of morality

I'm collecting formalizations of "morality" of any philosophical school. (My special wishes is anything for Kant, which I don't understand and for whom I didn't find anything seriously formal, at ...
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3 votes
1 answer
75 views

How should we characterize the logical structure of wishes?

The motivation for this question is extraordinarily stupid, but it requires just enough thought and specific knowledge of formal logic that I think it still falls within the broad scope of "...
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3 votes
1 answer
120 views

Is a set a concept?

Follow on from this question. Since sets have both intentional and extensional definition my thought is yes they are concepts. But maybe there is a technical reason that sets aren't concepts?
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3 votes
0 answers
41 views

Formal deduction of Whitehead's Philosophy of Organism

In Process and Reality Whitehead starts off the investigation by giving his categoreal scheme - different types of categories and their derivatives, as well as some axioms. If I understand correctly, ...
2 votes
5 answers
307 views

What actually is a simulation philosophically?

Everyone has heard of the idea that the universe might be a simulation - which we understand to mean that there is some computer in the "base" universe, which is running a program that is ...
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2 votes
2 answers
591 views

Descartes's *Cogito* from a modern, rigorous perspective

In Descartes's Meditations, in order to establish a firm foundation upon which he could build a framework to determine philosophical and material truths, he begins by removing all of his then-current ...
2 votes
2 answers
107 views

Bayesian Confirmation / Justification

Bradley in his book titled " A critical introduction to Formal Epistemology" mentions the grasshopper example (page 122) where: Hypothesis: Unobserved grasshoppers live south of Canada ...
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2 votes
2 answers
246 views

What is the difference between Herbrand Logic, Relational Logic and Predicate Logic?

I am learning a course from Stanford University, and it introduces the notion of Herbrand Logic. However in Wikipedia I cannot find a definition specifically for "Herbrand Logic", only for Herbrand ...
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2 votes
3 answers
108 views

Correctness of an argument inversely correlated to length?

How do we label the idea that the likely correctness of an argument or theory decreases with the size of the exposition required to expound it? Let me make a probabilistic analogy. Suppose we have a ...
2 votes
1 answer
51 views

Valid or invalid? ( from a CSU Exam, instructor Tim Black)

Source : http://www.csun.edu/~tab2595/PRAC_EXAM_1.pdf Is the following argument valid or invalid? (1) No email messages are written carefully, (2) but every love letter is very carefully written. ( ...
2 votes
1 answer
303 views

Classical logic, symbolic logic, higher-order logic, First-order logic? Learning from scratch

I'd like to ask you a question about logic. I study philosophy in a Spanish Christian university. In the first year, we study logic but it's the classical one, following Aristotle's Organon, the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
62 views

Need help translating a formal definition into FOL

I need help formally translating the following definition into FOL: "a property F is essential to an object x if and only if x could not have been the object it is without possessing the property F." ...
2 votes
3 answers
320 views

How do we arrive at stronger theories in mathematics/logic?

A reasonable aim of formal mathematics/logic is to build systems which can "interpret" many things. As an example, ZFC can interpret a number of things. Incompleteness Theorems provide us ...
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1 vote
1 answer
252 views

Which logic quantifier takes precedence when we are trying to evaluate a forumlaic interpretation?

Given: ∀y∃x Ryx ∃x∀y Ryx How do we know if these formulas are true? Are they true as long as some instances are true or must all be true? In other words, how can we identify the main quantifier? ...
1 vote
1 answer
103 views

How to infer ¬Q when there seems to be no way to

Rule #1: No man shall hit another man. Rule #2: If someone breaks Rule #1, then Rule #1 does not apply to such a one. My specific question is: How can someone infer that Rule #1 does apply to him? ...
1 vote
2 answers
130 views

Formal philosophy

I heard that there are philosophy classes that teach philosophy in a very rigorous and formal and mathematical manner. Are there books that do this? I would like some recommendations.
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1 vote
1 answer
32 views

Putting natural language into sentence logic

I’ve been practicing expressing natural language sentences into sentence logic. However, I need help transcribing these following four sentences into sentence logic (along with an accurate ...
1 vote
2 answers
2k views

Can a true statement also imply the opposite of itself?

It's unlikely that there could be a thesis that also is its own antithesis. Similarly, a formula usually isn't the "opposite" of itself if we use well-defined terminology. Somehow I have a notion ...
1 vote
0 answers
41 views

Trees/tableaux fir K-IF logic

Are there any attempts for tableaux/ tree rules for Hintikkas K-IF logic?
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1 vote
1 answer
109 views

What is (∃!e) in Davidson 1967?

Davidson proposes a causal law for singular event causation. Here is one example of a backward-looking part of such a law (changed slightly for clarity and to avoid copyright infringement): (e)(u)((...
0 votes
1 answer
104 views

In what ways are formalisms like modal logic Eurocentric?

I mean this as a linguistic question, not a cultural one. Operators in modal logic, like must and should exist in English, and many other languages -- but not in all of them. I mean: Modality is not ...
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0 votes
1 answer
58 views

Help understanding possible world formalism

I am a total novice to philosophy trying to make sense of a computer science article which makes reference to possible world theory. I don't really understand the formalization in the last sentence ...
  • 193
0 votes
1 answer
47 views

What is the difference between a logical connective and a logical gate? [closed]

I understand that any logical gate is a "physical" or "concrete" implementation (say, in an electronic circuits board) of a corresponding logical connective which is a purely ...
0 votes
2 answers
155 views

Is there any formal axiomatized definition of Determinism in First Order Logic (FOL), or any other logical system for that matter?

Is there any formal axiomatized definition of Determinism written in First Order Logic (FOL), with a semantic interpretation maybe rooted in Set Theory, or based on any other logical system and ...
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0 votes
1 answer
142 views

What is the explanatory power of Possible World Semantics?

What kind of problems is PWS particularly suited that e.g. FOL couldn't address? I'm just wondering when is a good time to use PWS and for what kinds of questions. Thanks!
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0 votes
0 answers
27 views

Are formal languages/systems as general as bounded, clear axioms and finding consequences?

I’ve tried searching PhilPapers for holistic accounts of formal/languages/systems and I’m not very successful, the best I’ve found being https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jafpos1956/12/1/12_1_15/...
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0 votes
0 answers
86 views

Life as a formal system

I am curious if there is some existing work on viewing life as a formal system. In formal system we have: axioms and rules of logic (like in math AND, OR) then we derive and prove theorems I see ...
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0 votes
0 answers
49 views

Is there a method for identifying the logical form of everyday speech sentences?

Is there a method for identifying the logical form of everyday speech sentences? Did any logicians attempt to establish such a method? Bertrand Russell gave a few examples of that but nothing ...
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0 votes
0 answers
125 views

Bibliography about non-mathematical applications of logic:

I have been recently playing with modal and temporal modal logics in the context of "organisms" (mostly after some study of entelechy in Aristotle and relatedly, some ideas of current biology). I have ...
-1 votes
3 answers
211 views

Is philosophy computation?

If philosophy is mathematics and mathematics is computation, can I conclude that philosophy is computation? Can we axiomatize philosophy? Can a computer think for us, given the current rise of AI? I'...