Questions tagged [history-of-philosophy]

The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. Issues specifically related to history of philosophy might include (but are not limited to): How can changes in philosophy be accounted for historically? What drives the development of thought in its historical context? To what degree can philosophical texts from prior historical eras be understood even today?

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What could be some general unifying principles to guide what a philosophical reflection/enquiry might look like?

The notions of logical consistency, pertinence and possibly relevance seem important for a philosophical inquiry on some matter to be fruitful and interesting. Other notions once considered important, ...
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Who was more insightful as a philosopher Evola or Gramsci? [closed]

During the early part of the 20th century italy had a bunch of rather prominent philosophers. Many of these philosophers like Gramsci,Evola and Gentile(I am not sure if Gramsci and Evola are in the ...
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How is it known that Aenesidemus the major sceptic philosopher was from Knossos?

Aenesidemus is considered one of the major skeptic ancient philosophers but according to wikipedia little is known about his life. How is it known that Aenesidemus the major sceptic philosopher was ...
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Is C.S Peirce really an independent co-discoverer of first-order logic?

According to this article copies of Frege's Begriffsschrift were both present during the early 1880s(before Peirce published his works on first-order logic) at the John Hopkins University where Peirce ...
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Is there a line between philosophy which problems are solvable by "pure thought" and which aren't?

It seems to me like a lot of arguments in philosophy are aided by insights of science, math, etc. For example, the relation between evolution and morals or Kant and geometry (and later non-Euclidian ...
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Is there an ontological distinction between magic and the supernatural?

I'm an ardent physicalist with a belief in the importance of the partial reduction of theories to physicalism. I have on occasion had discussions with philosophers here who challenge the existence of ...
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Which philosopher is most famous for his view on academic freedom, and in which text?

Which philosopher is most famous for his view on academic freedom, and in which text? I am looking for particular texts on academic freedom.
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What does philosophy say about the nature of philosophy itself?

We can philosophize about life, the universe, gods, or society, about physics, religion, art, literature, or war, about politics, economy, or paradoxes, about moral, ethics, aesthetics, consciousness, ...
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When and how should a philosophy student start to give his/her own ideas?

I am not a philosphy student, but I am a philosophy enthusiast who loves and studies philosophy on his own. I completely understand what philosophy books are trying to say, but I dont know how and ...
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Where can I find "The Jewish Problem" by Bruno Bauer since it is not available in Amazon, please?

I am co-authoring a book and I bumped in a reference with a curious angle to it. I would like to check it. If you know who have a PDF of "The Jewish Problem" by Bruno Bauer I would ...
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Who first defined truth as "adæquatio rei et intellectus"?

António Manuel Martins claims (@44:41 of his lecture "Fonseca on Signs") that the origin of what is now called the correspondence theory of truth, Veritas est adæquatio rei et intellectus. ...
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What are Ludwig Wittgenstein's greatest accomplishments?

I have heard a lot about Ludwig Wittgenstein, but what are his greatest accomplishments? I tried looking up on Wikipedia but didn't understand much.
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Who is Barclay, the supporter of monarchy, mentioned in John Locke's treatise of government?

In John Locke's two treatises of government he mentions "This is so evident, that Barclay himself, that great assertor of the power and sacredness of kings, is forced to confess" (chapter 19,...
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Philosopher that highlights that identity is made by societal standards?

I'm currently writing an essay on social media and its toxic effects on our sense of identity. Would you know of any philosophers that believe that our identity is constructed by society's standards? ...
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Is the notion of "Complex System" a philosophy of science? Is it the opposite of Reductionism? Is it related to Holism?

I have tried to come to terms with the notion of "complex systems" of which I heard in one of the lessons at school though without too much depth. I grasp that a complex system is such that ...
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Aren't Foucault's arguments that society thus far has been power evolving to exert itself more efficiently a grand narrative and thus not postmodern?

Post-modernism is a movement that demonstrates that the Modernist way of thinking that conceptions of truth could be arrived to via empricism, reason, science and that all of that could be put ...
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Did Muslim Philosophers copy the Greek Philosophy?

First let’s talk about thought, so there are two basic parameters for judging a thought or methodology is original or not? Critical attitude of that thought (If any thought contains the germs of ...
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Is Zoroastrianism underappreciated when in relation to its influence of Early Greek Philosophy?

It would be nice to believe that the Early Greek Philosophers were entirely original in their ideas, though it would be rather simplistic to say that such a reality was true. When examining, let's ...
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How did the Anaximander’s fragment challenge Greek philosophy?

Whence things have their origin, Thence also their destruction happens, As is the order of things; For they execute the sentence upon one another – The condemnation for the crime – In conformity with ...
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Plants: Aristotles vs. modern biology

Corals, sea anemones, sponges, etc. are animals according to modern biology. Mold or mushrooms are not plants and belong to their own realm of fungi. The Venus flytrap is a plant, though it is capable ...
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Could you recommend an anthology of modern philosophy texts?

Could you recommend an anthology of modern philosophy texts? I was tempted to buy the book Modern Philosophy: An Anthology of Primary Sources by Roger Arlew, but it is out of my financial reach. Do ...
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Do philosophers in twentieth century tend to ignore the history of philosophy?

as I read the history of western philosophy up to early nineteenth century, I have a feeling that the philosophy is somehow "making progress" over this long period. Not that philosophers ...
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Definitions of fairness

I am not a philosophy scholar, but I'm looking for - relatively recent and well-accepted - definitions of the notion of fairness. John Rawls, for example, outlines what he believes is fair in "A ...
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What are some good books about the concept of 'logos' in ancient Greek philosophy?

I am trying to do some reading on the concept of 'logos' in Greek philosophy before the time of Philo of Alexandria. Every time I try to search for "Books about Logos" or even "Books ...
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A question about Berkeley's attack on Locke's distinction of primary and secondary qualities

I'm reading W. T. Jones account of Berkeley's theory, and I find that in general Berkeley convincingly demonstrated some weak points that are fundamental to Locke's theory. But there is one of his ...
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Why would some philosophers consider Nietzsche the "Godfather of Fascism"?

I'm really new to philosophy and heard a lot that Nietzsche was considered the "godfather of fascism". The phrase seems to be a recent development according to Google ngram, but it is ...
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What does sensible images being "not material but spatial" mean in Plato's theory?

I'm reading W. T. Jones' "A History of Western Philosophy Vol 1: The Classical Mind". In page 152 there is a passage that says (in explaining Plato's theory of Physics): It is also ...
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Epictetus quote on Love and Wise

" If someone is incapable of distinguishing good things from bad and neutral things from either – well, how could such a person be capable of love? The power to love, then, belongs only to the ...
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Who was the first philosopher who explicitly connected belief with habit formation?

Aristotle speaks about habit but I can't find anywere in his works any explicit connection of habit with belief. Is there any subsequent philosopher who explicitly connected belief with habit ...
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Who first used the phrase "Deflationary Theory of Truth"?

SEP's history of the deflationary theory of truth does not explain the origins of the term Deflationary, but does point to the first people who "explicitly defended it". The deflationary ...
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Would Hannah Arendt classify raking leaves each autumn as labour or work?

Hannah Arendt was a Holocaust survivor and philosopher. In her work, The Human Condition, she takes an interest in the understanding of human activities. From WP: The Human Condition,1 first ...
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(Why) is this negative outlook on the concept of philosophy misguided?

The following is my negative outlook on philosophy. I'm interested in learning the reasons I might be wrong, outcomes and examples I'm not aware of, lest I express this opinion in the future and seem ...
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Being vs beings [closed]

I'm reading a book of Martin Heidegger in which i found the term 'being' and 'beings' I tried to know more about it but there is not much reference on internet.. Please explain both the term according ...
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What is philosophical position is it for only the things that are in your immediate vicinity to exist at any given time?

You can only know so much about what is going on around you. For example, it is impossible for me to know what is going on in China right now if I am in South America. I might try to look at the news, ...
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How does the Problem of the Many relate to Calculus?

How does the Problem of the Many relate to the philosophical basis of Calculus, if at all?
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Why the linguistic turn at early 20th century? Why not the physics/psychology turn? [closed]

Early 20th century philosophy went through a "linguistic turn", presumably due to developments in mathematical logic by Frege and Russell, followed by Wittgenstein's work. However, in the ...
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Is Socrates a teacher despite him denying so?

Despite him denying that he actually taught his followers anything and that they did everything on their own accord, what argument could be put forth that he was actually a teacher
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What arguments does Plato's Lysis put forth from 216 to 223?

I don't understand this part. He seems to go back and forth on whether they support one another and whether they are actually successful. Some serious clarification is needed.
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Are most philosophers analytic nowadays?

I know, the expression "analytic philosophy" is not something perfectly clear-cut, nor it is devoid of variations and multiplicity. The same can be said about "continental philosophy&...
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Are there any philosophers after Kant but before Peirce that developed the Kantian concept of schema further?

I was reading Peirce's writings on schemata and I was wondering if there was any other known philosopher before him who tried to use or extend schemata in his work. Are there any philosophers after ...
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What did John of Salisbury write about the concepts of "logical depth and breadth"?

In the Digital companion to Peirce site there is the following text about the logical depth and breadth: …it was between six and seven centuries ago that John of Salisbury spoke of it as “fere in ...
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Hakha-Manners (Philosophy of Ancient Iranians)

What was philosophy of ancient Iranians known as Hakha-Manners? Which is mispronounced in Greek to Achaemenid, In fact, this is the full and correct meaning of Achaemenid empire: the empire of the ...
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5 votes
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Spinoza’s argument for substance monism

Substance monism is a very significant part of Spinoza’s philosophy. But after reading the first part of his Ethics, an understanding of his arguments for it eludes me. Specifically, I have trouble ...
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Does anyone know where the following ideas are found in Peirce's collected works?

The following excerpt is from the book "Science Wars: What Scientists Know and How They Know It": Charles Sanders Peirce [...] argued that our ideas are a response to problems that we ...
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How do we know which dialogues Plato didn't write?

I understand that there are dialogues of Plato for which the authorship is contested, with some more than others. How are the dialogues determined to be spurious? Is it a different process for ...
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Plato's influence on Christianity

Is Christianity influenced by some of Plato's ideas? In particular, I thought that the notion in Christianity of God creating man in his own image was heavily reminiscent of Plato's forms, where God ...
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What does Spinoza mean by Acquiescentia in se ipso?

In Part V of Spinoza’s Ethics the pinnacle of human freedom and understanding is discussed as the viewpoint from eternal blessedness. How are we to characterize or interpret this doctrine of ...
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plato, spinoza, leibnitz and aristotle

I find this sentence without any elaboration- Spinoza’s philosophy was static as that of Plato while Leibnitz’s system was dynamic as that of Aristotle" What does it mean ? Thank You.
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Was the idea of different physical realms advanced by other philosophers?

Platonists think there's a realm where concept exist, but that realm isn't physical. I am wondering if the possibility of various other physical realms existing was ever proposed and if it was ...
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Help with the details and source of an anecdote, Wittgenstein and Carnap on the paranormal

There is an anecdote in which the participants were Wittgenstein and Carnap (or Hempel). One of the two had a book on parapsychology/paranormal stuff. The other scolded him for this. The book owner ...
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