Questions tagged [history-of-philosophy]

The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. Issues specifically related to history of philosophy might include (but are not limited to): How can changes in philosophy be accounted for historically? What drives the development of thought in its historical context? To what degree can philosophical texts from prior historical eras be understood even today?

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Does anyone know where the following ideas are found in Peirce's collected works?

The following excerpt is from the book "Science Wars: What Scientists Know and How They Know It": Charles Sanders Peirce, the polymath founder of American Pragmatism, gave the name ...
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How did Socrates' death affect Plato?

Is there a shift in any characteristic of Plato's writing; style, content, etc., that's visible after Socrates' death? How was Plato affected by Socrates' death, and more specifically, how was his ...
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How do we know which dialogues Plato didn't write?

I understand that there are dialogues of Plato for which the authorship is contested, with some more than others. How are the dialogues determined to be spurious? Is it a different process for ...
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Plato's influence on Christianity

Is Christianity influenced by some of Plato's ideas? In particular, I thought that the notion in Christianity of God creating man in his own image was heavily reminiscent of Plato's forms, where God ...
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What does Spinoza mean by Acquiescentia in se ipso?

In Part V of Spinoza’s Ethics the pinnacle of human freedom and understanding is discussed as the viewpoint from eternal blessedness. How are we to characterize or interpret this doctrine of ...
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plato, spinoza, leibnitz and aristotle

I find this sentence without any elaboration- Spinoza’s philosophy was static as that of Plato while Leibnitz’s system was dynamic as that of Aristotle" What does it mean ? Thank You.
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Was the idea of different physical realms advanced by other philosophers?

Platonists think there's a realm where concept exist, but that realm isn't physical. I am wondering if the possibility of various other physical realms existing was ever proposed and if it was ...
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Help with the details and source of an anecdote, Wittgenstein and Carnap on the paranormal

There is an anecdote in which the participants were Wittgenstein and Carnap (or Hempel). One of the two had a book on parapsychology/paranormal stuff. The other scolded him for this. The book owner ...
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What is the difference between western and other philosophies?

Is western philosophy simply based on scientific knowledge. Is is only about scientific or Academia knowledge? Why is it called western? Because it has its roots in ancient Greece where western ...
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Who was the first philosopher to make the distinction between slow rational thinking and fast instinctual one?

Scottish commonsensism seems to have something that resembles the rational/instinctual dichotomy but the concept may go further back to the ancient Greeks.
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Plato preempting Aristotle?

Did Plato ever anticipate and address the the Aristotelian position of identifying the existence of universals with their instantiations? If so, how have his arguments fared? Did Aristotle address ...
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The Byzantine intellectual tradition…an underreported History?

There are of course volumes and volumes of questions on Ancient Greek Philosophy and Philosophers; this is to be expected since Ancient Greece was and is still largely viewed as the Fountainhead of ...
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Is Augustin's love sermon 7 available online in Portuguese?

Many philosophers think highly of Augustin's Homily 7, on the First Epistle of John, as a moral philosophical consideration. Is there a Portuguese version available online?
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How does Kant treat the sublime in the Anthropology compared with the Third Critique?

Is Kant treating the sublime consistently in the third critique and Anthropology? In other words, what are the differences being addressed in these empirical and transcendental inquires regarding the ...
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According to Aristotle, how many unmoved movers are there in the universe?

In On The Heavens, Aristotle described there are multiple unmoved movers in different celestial spheres as the final causes of celestial movements, however, in the Physics, Aristotle concluded there ...
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Renovating transcendental idealism

In the 20th century, philosophers such as P.F Strawson and Paul Guyer attempted to disentangle (what they viewed as) the unsavory components of Kant's system of transcendental idealism from (what they ...
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The study of systems of thought from the perspective of Anthropology

This question surrounds whether there is a sub-field of philosophy or sub-field of anthropology that studies systems of thought from an anthropological perspective: as a thing that humans do. In other ...
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What are considered landmark ideas on happiness among modern philosophers?

Yes, there was Aristotle's understanding of it as an objective, and Epicurus providing a recipe. David Hume concurred, "The great end of all human industry is the attainment of happiness. For ...
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Who was the first philosopher to build a comprehensive philosophy around the concept of power?

Friedrich Nietzsche seems to have written extensively about power but there seem to be much earlier philosophers who wrote extensively about power like Spinoza. Who was the first philosopher to build ...
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Did Anselm of Canterbury know any Greek philosophy?

Since Anselm seems to be one of the early major medieval philosophers I was wondering if he knew any Greek philosophy.
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How Biases and Prejudices Deviate the Philosophy of Peace in round table meeting of world politics

Why do politically strengthened nations deviate from the ideal of peace building and misuse power through bias, prejudice, and subjugation of others towards "peace," but not actual, absolute ...
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Generating the simplest sort of Cosmological Argument

First, I am not a philosopher, but rather an applied mathematician. However, the Cosmological Argument has always intrigued me. At times I feel that all attempts are necessarily hopeless, at other ...
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Inhowfar is scientific inquiry modeled on the interrogation of witches?

(Carolyn) Merchant sees proof in the link between persecution of witches and development of modern science in the work of Francis Bacon, one of the reputed father of the new scientific method, showing ...
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Is there a clear cut distinction between Philosophy and Philology?

I’ve been recently mulling over semantic and linguistic issues and I realized that my understanding of these fields may not correspond to the commonly accepted wisdom, so to speak. Although the ...
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Did the philosophy of Heidegger lead to any advances in scientific knowledge? [closed]

Heidegger seems to be one of ther most controversial figures in philosophy as some philosophers consider him the greatest philosopher of the 20th century and others a charlatan. Analytic philosophers ...
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What is the origin of the idea that moral realism requires a god?

This idea has always been very strange to me. The first time I encountered this idea was when I was required to read about the Euthyphro Dilemma in college. It felt like a whole dialogue about ...
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Word for an unending task that one is compelled to do

Absurdism uses The Myth of Sisyphus to give a metaphor for the unending human need to attribute meaning to life. What would be the most well-understood (or established) word that means: "a ...
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What's the background and meaning of this philosophy quote?

I'm new here and this is my first question. My professor gave me an assignment that let me choose any philosophy quote and talk about it. I want a quote that sound COOL so I go to Google and search it ...
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What was the need to create the concept of art and science? [closed]

It sounds like a very basic question, but I have often wondered why the concept of art and science exist as two distinct disciplines when there is actually very little to distinguish or separate the ...
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What do you make of Marimba Ani's critique of European philosophy?

Ani's 1994 work, Yurugu: An Afrikan-Centered Critique of European Cultural Thought and Behavior, examined the influence of European culture on the formation of modern institutional frameworks, through ...
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Is there, in Aristotle, a broad concept of thinking ( noèsis) that includes imagination ? Or is imagination a purely sensible power?

In Aristotle's De Anima, Bk. III, Part 3 ( http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/soul.3.iii.html) one can read this : "Thinking is different from perceiving and is held to be in part imagination, in ...
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Historically, were most philosophers moral realists before the rise of physicalism?

Moral facts seem weird because they don't seem to mesh too well with a purely physicalist ontology (although there is such a thing as ethical naturalism). It somehow seems odd that alongside the facts ...
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Did Clausewitz's On War influence later non military/political philosophy?

Clausewitz's On War has influenced countless politicians and people with military related jobs. Did On War influence later non military/political philosophy?
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Oppenheimer on Piaget: “… he is almost a philosopher …”. Is the status of Philosopher a pinnacle? [closed]

In an interview (4:10) while Director of Institute for Advanced Study, J. Robert Oppenheimer states quite plainly and sincerely: We had here this year a Swiss French psychologist - he is almost a ...
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How do the works attributed to Aristotle are determined to originate from him?

Are there other surviving works that were written at around the same time as Aristotle's that cite the works or concepts from the Aristotelian corpus?
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Evidences of Jewish Influence on Pre Socratic Philosophy [closed]

1 Kings 4:34 "From all nations people came to listen to Solomon's wisdom, sent by all the kings of the world, who had heard of his wisdom" Is it plausible to speculate that the widespread ...
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List of books which teaches historical Aristotelian logic

Background: I want to study philosophy and I think a good way is to first learn logic, so I tried reading The Categories. But even after trying so hard, I didn't understand it. The writing is very ...
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What do you call a non-philosophical opinion given by a philosopher?

What do you call a non-philosophical opinion given by a philosopher? Nietzsche wrote a lot of critical texts on religion, morality, contemporary culture, philosophy and science, but a lot of it is ...
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What is it called when two theories ultimately become one theory in science?

I am trying to think of an example of scientific explanation whose scope was in fact broader than we initially thought. The idea would be the following: Initially, we used H (the explanation) to ...
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Are there ethicists who defend the conclusion that “harm” be defined by the individual being harmed?

From WP: Some legal scholars... have argued that the traditional issues of free speech -- that "the main threat to free speech" is the censorship of "suppressive states", and that ...
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Why in the academic fields of art and design, the philosophy taught or mentioned is often Continental philosophy?

Is there any rationale to prefer, in academic fields of art, Continental philosophy over Analytic philosophy? I guess there might be a historical reason why philosophy evolved into two approaches but ...
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Was Peirce the first to distinguish objective and subjective possibilities?

I was reading IEP article about C.S Peirce where some of his logical notations for modal logic are presented, and one them seem to make a distinction between a subjective formula and an objective one....
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Do philosophers have some arguments regarding possible explanations for origin of free will?

Assuming that some free will exists or is real, what major philosophical arguments have been offered regarding the origin of free will? The Philosophy StackExchange post Is the theory of evolution a ...
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Did Charlies Peirce write this sentence or something closely related in meaning?

I saw the following phrase recently and I was surprised that it was ascribed to Peire: "We do not really think, we are barely conscious, until something goes wrong" Did Charlies Peirce write ...
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Did Peirce's semiotics influence Saussure's own semiotic theory?

I am assuming that Saussure's semiotic theory came after Peirce's. Is there any indication that Saussure was aware of Peirce's theory? If not then was there any philosophical/scientific development(...
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Which unary or binary logical operators existed in logic before 1854 besides 'and', 'or', and 'not'?

Logical operators are a central focus of logicians, and two important books with innovative thoughts on logic include Begriffsschrift (1879) by Gottlob Frege and The Laws of Thought by George Boole in ...
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Why is first-order logic interesting to philosophers?

This site had a question: Is First Order Logic (FOL) the only fundamental logic? Let me ask the opposite: Why is FOL still interesting or useful to philosophers? For example, the "ancestor" ...
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Why is a well-understood theory easier to understand, and does this answer the question “Why is older philosophy 'easier' to understand”?

I know the question sounds weird, so I'll bring an example coming from my field: mathematics. One of the greatest mathematicians of all time is Gauss. One of his results is the "Remarkable ...
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Internet Fora and Metaphilosophy

Prologue Given a look at the history of philosophy, one can argue that philosophical methods have evolved from those of the Pre-Socratics to contemporary methods which rely heavily on citations and ...
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Was the notion of mind-body dualism invented, or at least popularized, by Rene Descartes?

This dualism seems so compelling (from a layman’s perspective) that it seems difficult to imagine that Descartes invented or even popularized it. For instance, people kept using words like “soul” to ...

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