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Questions tagged [history-of-philosophy]

The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. Issues specifically related to history of philosophy might include (but are not limited to): How can changes in philosophy be accounted for historically? What drives the development of thought in its historical context? To what degree can philosophical texts from prior historical eras be understood even today?

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43 views

Whence does the standard of what is and is not Philosophy derive? [on hold]

What, for instance, would be the key criteria for determining the status of a suspected Philosopher. For instance there seems an uncertainty as to whether Zizek is a philosopher, a cultural theorist ...
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Is the concept of Aporia the same as the Zen concept of A Beginners Mind?

Is the concept of Aporia the same as the zen concept of A Beginners Mind, or related to it, or a completely different concept?
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Is this difficulty in Popper's notion previously known, and is it Intelligible?

Popper, in his test theory, says that a hypothesis can not be in accord with all possible observable phenomena (I lack the exact formulation). There must be something observable that falsifies (or, ...
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What views have Philosophers given about what Philosophy is? [on hold]

What are the most urgent and the most powerful views concerning this question throughout the ages?
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Which Philosophers developed standards of Intelligence? [on hold]

Which Philosophers have spoken most tellingly, or exercised themselves most thoroughgoingly, on the proper subject matter of the idea of intelligence? And which views are the most serious? It's clear ...
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Which Philophers are the most intelligent? [closed]

Are the philosophers of the past more intelligent, or those of our own time? Have any philosophers taken a stand on this question? How do they understand the criterion of absolute intelligence?
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Why does Heidegger say Biography is unimportant for Philosophy?

Why does Heidegger say that "regarding the personality of a philosopher, our only interest is that he was born at a certain time, that he worked, and that he died."?
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Does Darwin owe a debt to Hegel?

I just realized that Darwin's theory of evolution is very much historicist, and resembles Hegel's notion of an arc of history: evolution is progressive and moves with purpose in an almost dialectical ...
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2answers
66 views

Objective idealism and realism can be similar?

So, Hegel's objective idealism believes in manifestations of reason which is nothing but ideas. And which exists in this world is nothing but the ideas, everything is idea and idea is everything. ...
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293 views

Rationalism and Catholicism / Protestantism

How much more “incompatible” was rationalism with Catholicism compared to Protestant christianity? Of course everyone learned in high school that the enlightenment was in direct opposition to ...
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Why jain philosophy denies indeterminate stage of perception?

Ok ,so I'm reading now Indian philosophy and I found that Buddhism and many other Indian philosophy recognise both ' determinate and indeterminate stage of perception ' while jainas don't !
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What philosophical axes did 19th century mathematicians have to grind?

Tim Button's presentation of set theory motivates the subject by providing a history of 19th century mathematics where the notion of limit allowed definitions of the derivative and continuity. These ...
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Who first said that words express emotions, and do not describe objects?

I was reading a critique of Daniel Dennett's 'From Bacteria to Bach and Back', and in this criticism it is alleged that Dennett's conception of words as object descriptions is false. The suggestion ...
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252 views

Is philosophy a science and can it prove facts like science?

I would like to know whether philosophy can be treated as science since both science and philosophy search for truth, but philosophical theories, I think, are not provable. So my question is: ...
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Which books do you recommend for me?

I read a lot about philosophy but it’s so huge that I stand confused. I am not sure which branch of philosophy suits me. I request your help. I don’t believe in god or spirituality. I want to live ...
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Noam Chomsky vs 9/11 Truth movement. Is Noam's Logic legit?

When Noam Chomsky was asked about what he thought about the collapse of building 7 at the University of Florida in 2013, he replied that only a minuscule part of the scientific community backed up the ...
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What did Wittgenstein mean when he said death is not an event in one's life?

What did Wittgenstein mean when he said death is not an event in one's life? It's my understanding that death is not something that applies to the stipulated solipsistic self of his philosophy. ...
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Authors on Social Evolution, Personal Liberties and Corruption

Institutional corruption as been associated with excessive hedonism eg. libertinism. In history there have been recurring cycles in which economic depression has led to the uprising of authoritarian ...
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1answer
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What are the main differences between Hume's Book I of the Treatise and the Enquiry?

It's known Hume's Treatise on human nature wasn't very successful when first released and then he reworked the Book 1 of it in An enquiry concerning human understanding, but where can we see a good ...
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Jon Burnett's statement about “religions of the oriental type” and Ancient Greece

I'm reading Bertrand Russel's The History of Western Philosophy, where he quotes Jon Burnett (in Early Greek Philosophy) as saying: It looked as if Greek religion were about to enter the same stage ...
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2answers
107 views

Authors who think Culture is power? [closed]

The USA is leading country in military expenditure in the world. To match what the USA spends you have to add up the budget of the next 11 countries on the list combined. ref here The USA is not ...
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6answers
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Did Logical Positivism fail because it simply denied human emotion?

Did the denial of human emotion lead to the death of logical positivism?
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1answer
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What if Euthyphro gave the opposite answer?

As part of a course I am taking, I was asked to continue the dialogue Euthyphro as if Euthyphro had given the opposite response to Plato's famous question: Is the pious loved by the gods because it ...
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1answer
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Why is Plato's visible world said to be Heraclitean and Plato's intelligible world said to be Parmenidean?

I have been learning about Plato's Theory of Forms, and I have read that Plato's visible world is Heraclitean, and Plato's intelligible world is Parmenidean. I think I understand the parallel between ...
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138 views

I don't understand Parmenides's argument for why we can't think about what doesn't exist

I have been learning about Parmenides, and I don't think I am correctly understanding his argument for why we can't think/speak about things that don't exist. I tried to apply his logic to a ...
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108 views

Has no epistemologist noticed the problem with “truth” before Gettier?

According to Wikipedia (indeed not the most trustworthy source, but the SEP article also portraits it this way) the classic belief-justification-truth method of defining knowledge has only been ...
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163 views

Who first studied asymmetric relations qua relation?

Who first asymmetric relations qua relation, viz., the fact that A relates to B by some relation does not always/necessarily imply that B relates to A by the same relation. ?
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105 views

Who first studied “logical (ir)reversibility”?

Who first studied "logical (ir)reversibility" philosophically? By "logical (ir)reversibility" I mean questions like:Why is it easier to multiply large numbers than to factorize them? understand a ...
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28 views

What Leibniz should I read if I want to better understand Voltaire?

I keep hearing that Voltaire's Candide is written in response to the ideas of Leibniz. If I wanted to get a better understanding of Voltaire, which works by Leibniz would be most pertinent for me to ...
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Looking for references regarding the history of metaphysics, and specially of ontology

Although many histories of ethics, of esthetics or of logic are available, it seems more difficult to find histories regarding other domains of philosophy. This is the case for epistemology and for ...
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60 views

The source of a Nietzsche quote

I remember Nietzsche wrote "it is OK to philosophize by just touching on subjects" instead of developing a systematic way. In which book was it? Or do I misremember the quote? Thanks in advance, Best ...
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What do they call philosophers in China?

The English word "philosopher" comes from the Greek, and literally means "lover of wisdom." But what is the literal translation of the analogous term in Chinese? (There's more to this question than ...
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On Latin reception of Avicenna

I'm looking for an article represents a general picture of Ibn Sina's (Avicenna's) Latin reception in the middle ages. For example in this book we read about reception of particular aspects: https://...
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697 views

What are the discoveries that have been possible with the rejection of positivism?

I am wondering if the rejection of the positivism movement in philosophy lead to any major discoveries in mathematics and natural sciences? I am thinking it might have been able to contribute to those ...
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Was there any philosopher named Lexiphagoras?

I am reading this book: There's A Word For It! and the author Charles Harrington Elster claims that a particular excerpt was written by an ancient Greek philosopher Lexiphagoras of Alphasia. I did ...
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How has Nicolas Malebranche influenced our views of modern philosophy?

Nicolas Malebranche was a rationalist philosopher, theologian and French priest. Much of his philosophical views were based on St Augustine, a Roman African philosopher. To what extent has he ...
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Papers on the history of the answers to Parmenides

I'd like to ask if any of you know of a paper which talks about the history of the answers to Parmenides and Zeno(from Plato and Aristotle to more recent works such as Russell's and )
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How to answer people who would claim that “philosophy is useless”?

How to answer people who would claim that "philosophy is useless"? My take: "Philosophy, since it by def. considers fundamental matters, such as existence, cannot be rationally neglected, because ...
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1answer
56 views

When writing commentary on well-known philosophers, which method is more effective: comparative analysis or straightforward interpretation? [closed]

Although there are numerous methods for eliciting accurate transliteration of historical philosophers' intended meaning, two appear to be most prominent: Comparative analysis; where the author ...
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72 views

Is the idea of potential energy (from physics) influenced by the idea of potentiality found in Aristotelian metaphysics?

Aside from the common usage of the term 'potential,' was the development of the idea of potential energy influenced by the Aristotelian idea of potentiality and actuality, at least historically? ...
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96 views

Undue complexity in philosophical expositions [closed]

I feel that philosophy has become overly abstruse for general public over the years. One can easily read Plato Aristotle etc. but would not have a clue of what most modern philosophers are saying. The ...
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1answer
107 views

What does Aristotle mean by this text?

Poetry in general can be seen to owe its existence to two causes, and these are rooted in nature. First, there is man's natural propensity, from childhood onwards, to engage in mimetic activity (and ...
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1answer
216 views

Does infinity in philosophy reduce to philosophy of mathematics?

It seems to me that any modern philosophical investigation of infinity reduces to looking at the mathematical concept of infinity (as introduced by Georg Cantor) and then delving into philosophy of ...
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1answer
57 views

Where does 'numerical' in 'numerical identity' come from?

L.S., the word numerical has several meanings. E.g. numerical in the meaning ''given by numbers', and when saying Numerical Identity, meaning 'only one'. When was the first time the word was ...
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6answers
110 views

How is/was “good” (as the contrary of bad) defined? [closed]

As Nietzsche differentiated there are two kinds of good: this question's focus is on the contrary of bad, not the contrary of evil. There are quite a lot of possible ways to define the common term "...
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3answers
135 views

Aside from Jesus who have put justice (legalism) and friendliness (benevolence) in opposition?

I'm more interested in ancient thinkers. Maybe there are notable people with such views who lived before Jesus. I will use the term friendliness as a treatment of someone as a potential friend. And a ...
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365 views

Which rational thinkers (theologians, philosophers, scientists, mathematicians etc.), prior to 1850, disagreed with Aristotle's logic?

Did any intellectual luminary ever articulate any major disagreement with Aristotle's logic prior to the inception of modern mathematical "classical" logic? Which rational thinkers, such as ...
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1answer
101 views

What is the difference between object, concept and Gestalt?

Within the context of philosophical writings (i.e. not psychology), what is the difference and relations of the following terms: Begriff Gegenstand Gestalt For example as used by Frege ("Ueber ...
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113 views

What argument styles have only recently been labelled fallacies?

While reading Douglas Walton's "Historical Origins of Argumentum ad Consequentiam", I realized there is at least one argument style that appears reasonable but which has been labelled as a logical ...
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2answers
172 views

Is Occam's razor about finding the “Best” or the “Worst”?

William of Ockham would, in the 14th century, scarcely have imagined how much Philosophy of science could change. Then when Bacon gave us Inductivism in the 17th century, an immediate synergy can be ...