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Questions tagged [history-of-philosophy]

The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. Issues specifically related to history of philosophy might include (but are not limited to): How can changes in philosophy be accounted for historically? What drives the development of thought in its historical context? To what degree can philosophical texts from prior historical eras be understood even today?

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What do they call philosophers in China?

The English word "philosopher" comes from the Greek, and literally means "lover of wisdom." But what is the literal translation of the analogous term in Chinese? (There's more to this question than ...
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Is there a particular name/origin for the hypothesis “every x seconds, y event occurs” [closed]

I'm interested in whether there is a particular name for the above (part mesaurement, part prediction) formula/hypothesis (e.g. "every second, 4 babies are born","every minute, 330,000 google searches ...
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Philosopher who believed in god when he got sick [closed]

Like the title, I have read somewhere about someone who is either agnostic or strongly against the idea of god, but when he got sick, he believed in god. What is his name?
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Discovery of sky [closed]

I want to know that how philosophers like Aristotle,Plato came to know about space is different from the earth surrounding where the philosophers live at that time there was no invention of telescope
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What is the meaning of “philosophical question” and “philosophical thought” [duplicate]

All I know is that Whenever we think or talk about a topic long enough, if our thinking or discussion is the least bit organized, we may become engaged in philosophy Stated in the book philosophy ...
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On Latin reception of Avicenna

I'm looking for an article represents a general picture of Ibn Sina's (Avicenna's) Latin reception in the middle ages. For example in this book we read about reception of particular aspects: https://...
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What are the discoveries that have been possible with the rejection of positivism?

I am wondering if the rejection of the positivism movement in philosophy lead to any major discoveries in mathematics and natural sciences? I am thinking it might have been able to contribute to those ...
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Was there any philosopher named Lexiphagoras?

I am reading this book: There's A Word For It! and the author Charles Harrington Elster claims that a particular excerpt was written by an ancient Greek philosopher Lexiphagoras of Alphasia. I did ...
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How has Nicolas Malebranche influenced our views of modern philosophy?

Nicolas Malebranche was a rationalist philosopher, theologian and French priest. Much of his philosophical views were based on St Augustine, a Roman African philosopher. To what extent has he ...
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Papers on the history of the answers to Parmenides

I'd like to ask if any of you know of a paper which talks about the history of the answers to Parmenides and Zeno(from Plato and Aristotle to more recent works such as Russell's and )
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How to answer people who would claim that “philosophy is useless”?

How to answer people who would claim that "philosophy is useless"? My take: "Philosophy, since it by def. considers fundamental matters, such as existence, cannot be rationally neglected, because ...
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When writing commentary on well-known philosophers, which method is more effective: comparative analysis or straightforward interpretation? [closed]

Although there are numerous methods for eliciting accurate transliteration of historical philosophers' intended meaning, two appear to be most prominent: Comparative analysis; where the author ...
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Is the idea of potential energy (from physics) influenced by the idea of potentiality found in Aristotelian metaphysics?

Aside from the common usage of the term 'potential,' was the development of the idea of potential energy influenced by the Aristotelian idea of potentiality and actuality, at least historically? ...
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Undue complexity in philosophical expositions [closed]

I feel that philosophy has become overly abstruse for general public over the years. One can easily read Plato Aristotle etc. but would not have a clue of what most modern philosophers are saying. The ...
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What does Aristotle mean by this text?

Poetry in general can be seen to owe its existence to two causes, and these are rooted in nature. First, there is man's natural propensity, from childhood onwards, to engage in mimetic activity (and ...
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Does infinity in philosophy reduce to philosophy of mathematics?

It seems to me that any modern philosophical investigation of infinity reduces to looking at the mathematical concept of infinity (as introduced by Georg Cantor) and then delving into philosophy of ...
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Where does 'numerical' in 'numerical identity' come from?

L.S., the word numerical has several meanings. E.g. numerical in the meaning ''given by numbers', and when saying Numerical Identity, meaning 'only one'. When was the first time the word was ...
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How is/was “good” (as the contrary of bad) defined? [closed]

As Nietzsche differentiated there are two kinds of good: this question's focus is on the contrary of bad, not the contrary of evil. There are quite a lot of possible ways to define the common term "...
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Aside from Jesus who have put justice (legalism) and friendliness (benevolence) in opposition?

I'm more interested in ancient thinkers. Maybe there are notable people with such views who lived before Jesus. I will use the term friendliness as a treatment of someone as a potential friend. And a ...
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Which rational thinkers (theologians, philosophers, scientists, mathematicians etc.), prior to 1850, disagreed with Aristotle's logic?

Did any intellectual luminary ever articulate any major disagreement with Aristotle's logic prior to the inception of modern mathematical "classical" logic? Which rational thinkers, such as ...
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What is the difference between object, concept and Gestalt?

Within the context of philosophical writings (i.e. not psychology), what is the difference and relations of the following terms: Begriff Gegenstand Gestalt For example as used by Frege ("Ueber ...
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What argument styles have only recently been labelled fallacies?

While reading Douglas Walton's "Historical Origins of Argumentum ad Consequentiam", I realized there is at least one argument style that appears reasonable but which has been labelled as a logical ...
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Is Occam's razor about finding the “Best” or the “Worst”?

William of Ockham would, in the 14th century, scarcely have imagined how much Philosophy of science could change. Then when Bacon gave us Inductivism in the 17th century, an immediate synergy can be ...
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English translation of Descartes's Notae in Programma Quoddam?

The SEP entry on Descartes (https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/descartes-works/) mentions his work "Notae in Programma Quoddam." It is referred to as "Notes on a Program-also referred to as Comments ...
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How ancient is 'Philosophy'?

Firstly the word 'philosophy' traces back to the Ancient Greeks, but surely 'Wisdom' must have preceded the sophistication to record and preserve it. I believe that religion may have served as a ...
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Does the concept of a God who is both immanent and transcendent originate with Plotinus?

In discussing the One of Plotinus, Dominic J. O'Meara writes the following (page 46): Plotinus points to a distinction between elements which exist only as components of a whole (they depend on ...
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Does Psychology benefit Philosophy?

This question got me thinking: It is widely held that Philosophy precedes the Sciences, birthing them. and continue to inform them. It is also evident that there are times when science has informed ...
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Schopenauer's critique of Kant: the distinction between knowledge of perception from abstract knowledge

I am reading "The World as Will and Representation" by Arthur Schopenhauer (Norman, J., Welchman, A., & Janaway, C. (Eds.). (2010). Schopenhauer: 'The World as Will and Representation'). In the ...
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Authors on wars influencing societies [closed]

Let's presume Nazi Germany did not happen. Young kids would not have references on how damaging extreme nationalism can be therefore the Third Reich could have append anywhere in the world an can ...
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Can / Should Philosophy be made more 'accessible'?

Metallica and Philosophy: A Crash Course in Brain Surgery edited by William Irwin "...metal up your ass!" - I kid you not, that's a quote from a purportedly serious philosophical work (ref. above)....
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What was the scholastic position on Monarchy?

I'm trying to look into the history of medieval political thought, and I am struggling with the scholastics, especially Scotus and Albert. Does anyone know what their views were on Monarchy ...
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Is Philosophy still useful in the modern era?

It seems as though society doesn't value philosophy as much as it used to, is this because the possible major schools of thought have already been addressed? If so, and since we're left with so many ...
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Areas under studied in the history of philosophy?

I am wondering what peoples opinion's are on the most promising areas of study in the history of philosophy currently. I am currently reading on Renaissance philosophy, particularly some authors from ...
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Why did Scientists still follow Newton's scientific framework, even though Kant debunked it?

Why did physicists still followed Newton's framework all the way until the early 20th century, Pre-Einstein Kant wrote a book criticizing Newtonian mechanics (metaphysics) did many physicists simply ...
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Is it an issue to not have read major works when going into Philosophy graduate school (history of ideas)

I am currently doing an undergraduate degree in philosophy and I want to study history of ideas in graduate school. I'm planning to apply to programs in UK/Europe or history of ideas focused ...
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What sort of philosophy does this come into?

Okay so I'm going to have a very hard time trying to convey what I want to because I myself am unsure on how to frame this question. Is there any philosophical branch that deals with 'binarial' ...
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What did Kant think about The Doctrine of Philosophical Necessity?

In 1777, Joseph Priestley wrote a major philosophical work called The Doctrine of Philosophical Necessity, and according to Wikipedia: Philosophical Necessity influenced the 19th-century ...
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If Descartes was not a ‘Cartesian’ dualist, who was?

Some scholars have made the argument that a careful reading of Descartes shows (for example, see his ship-sailor-analogy) that he himself did not actually believe in a dualism of the proverbial ‘ghost ...
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Why did different cultures develop different philosophies?

Why did places like India develop things like Vedantism and Buddhism while Greece developed Platonism and Rationalism? If peoples have the same cognitive equipment, why develop different philosophies?
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What are the main errors of Bertrand Russell's A History of Western Philosophy?

This discussion of A History of Western Philosophy complains about its errors and omissions, but doesn't give examples of the former. A previous question asked "how inaccurate" Russell's book was, and ...
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How does Aristotle analyse justice in Nicomachean Ethics, V?

Aristotle draws a distinction between general and particular justice at the start of Nicomachean Ethics, V. Can anyone explain this distinction to me? General justice seems like merely all-round moral ...
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Who came up with the notion of a properly basic belief?

I first heard about so-called properly basic beliefs in the context of discussions about belief in God. Moreover, when I do a Google search for the term "properly basic belief," I get a bunch of ...
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What is use-value according to Marx and why is it what is valuable in a commodity?

According to Marx, labor is what gives a commodity its value, specifically useful labor(das mudpie). My question here is what exactly is useful labor and why is labor itself what provides value and ...
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What (who) to read before reading Kant

I am going to be taking an undergraduate course with a prof who marks quite severely. She mentioned that the course expects a working knowledge of Early Modern Philosophy, and specifically to read the ...
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1answer
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History of philosophy - not chronological but thematic

I was reading in the recent past the multivolume History of Philosophy of F.Copleston. It is essentially the only interesting history of philosophy (along with the multivolume Routhledge History of ...
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Did any philosophers in the middle ages and before tackle depression or suicide?

Extremely weird question, I know, But were any philosophers in the middle ages and before tackle topics such as depression and suicide? I mean we see them tackle happiness and living happily, but were ...
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Weren't there any philosophers from Africa,America, Middle East before Socrates?

It seems that philosophy began from 2 locations, Asia and Europe, but were there any philosophers from Middle East ,America (south and north) and Africa? I mean, Asia and Europe weren't friends yet ...
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Did fiction actually give new ideas to philosophy which have been investigated by academics and studied further?

Under fiction I mean anything that has a plot: science fiction or fantasy, literature or films, etc. Philosophical ideas occur in fiction here and there, but majorly, since authors were not in ...
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What were the changes to philosophy after the second world war?

I just want to know, like existentialism, what were the other theories in philosophy that changed due to the second world war and what new philosophical theories emerged due to the second world war.
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Why was the creation of philosophy so important to contributions in science and human development? [closed]

Why was the creation of philosophy so important to us humans? After all, we are curious and we always want answers, and philosophy was a field of thinking that helped develop sciences. But how did the ...