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Questions tagged [history-of-philosophy]

The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. Issues specifically related to history of philosophy might include (but are not limited to): How can changes in philosophy be accounted for historically? What drives the development of thought in its historical context? To what degree can philosophical texts from prior historical eras be understood even today?

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Most Widely Held Theories of How "Moral Sense" Arises in a Culture [duplicate]

I am the kind of person who is slow to really "get" some of my fellow citizens moral sense (often codified in rules of thumb in proverbial sayings). I almost prefer the hard way of a ...
gbmye's user avatar
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What are the conclusions in Kant or Hegel that we can take to the bank?

What are the conclusions in Kant's or Hegel's philosophy which "we can take to the bank" according to current scholarship? Thank you for any scholarly reference.
Speakpigeon's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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What is the first recorded use of the conditional form in human history?

The conditional form, ⟨ IF ϕ, THEN ψ ⟩, seems to have always been with us, but we don't really know. So, what is the first attested use of the conditional form in human history? Thank you for any ...
Speakpigeon's user avatar
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How would Hegel's view on the so-called mind-body problem be categorized today?

There are many attempts today at solving the mind-body problem, and these views can fall into many categories, like compound substance dualism, cartesian dualism, neutral monism, panpsychism, idealism,...
Kento's user avatar
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35 views

Would graphing the SEP show that nontrivially-repeated-premise logic is in some sense "indispensable" to (meta)philosophy?

I get stuff about multiple-ending books, most notably the "Choose Your Own Adventure" brand, on my FB feed, and one time there was an article about a graph of such a book. Or there is a ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
98 views

Who was the first philosopher to describe approximation?

Who was the first philosopher to describe what we now call curve fitting or approximation? Pierre Duhem discusses this a bit in Aim & Structure of Physical Theory, pt. 2, ch. 3 "Mathematical ...
Geremia's user avatar
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8 votes
6 answers
3k views

Who was the first philosopher to describe what we now call artificial intelligence?

Who was the first philosopher (e.g., Greek or pre-Socratic) to define or describe what we now call artificial intelligence? In your answer, first discusses the natural vs. artificial distinction (e.g....
Geremia's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
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Is there any reference about critical rationalism with respect to historiography?

I am interested in history of the science and mathematics, and I wonder whether critical rationalism was ever suggested as a method by which to do history of the sciences or mathematics? Does it even ...
SAFI's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
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What are some examples of modern, non-academic philosophy questions? [closed]

Here are some ancient philosophy questions that the Ancient Greeks posed: How many grains of sand make up a pile? If you take a ship, replace its parts (starboard, stern, oars, etc...) one-by-one ...
Fomalhaut's user avatar
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Did Popper ever mention Rand and vice versa?

I’ve read a lot of Karl Popper’s writings and a fair amount of Ayn Rand’s. It seems odd that two of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century never talk about each other or address each ...
Dennis Hackethal's user avatar
-1 votes
2 answers
86 views

What motivated Karl Marx, on a personal level? [closed]

Why did Karl Marx care so much about there being inequality in society? Did he have personal experiences that aroused his compassion for the poor? Was he influenced by preexisting left-leaning ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
71 views

What do we mean when we talk about Aristotelianism?

Let's say that "Aristotelianism" is a philosophical "view" based on Aristotle's thought. Let's say that the contents of this "view" are those presented in the Corpus ...
Ian's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
235 views

Is the uptake in grounding-talk, in modern analytic metaphysics, a carryover from the notion of a ground-state in physics?

The SEP article on metaphysical grounding says of the history of the topic: There are interesting and difficult questions about grounding, its history, and what its relationship to the history of ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
164 views

Blaise Pascal and a possible unfinished Philosophical System?

We know that Blaise Pascal died young and was unable to develop many of his theses that are embryonically present in his Pensées, his treatise on Grace, or his reflections on the spirit of geometry. ...
Ian's user avatar
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6 votes
2 answers
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An early 20th century philosopher whose approach to teaching was "if you can't explain it to [my granddaughter] then you don't understand it yourself"

I'm not quite sure if it was his granddaughter, it could have been his daughter or niece? If her name was "Rose" then he referred to it as "Rose's rule" or something to his ...
Beauregard D's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
102 views

The Pragmatic Maxim as a Maxim of Logic? [closed]

Why does the Wikipedia entry on the pragmatic maxim describe it as a "maxim of logic"?
GhostRocket's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
106 views

Can/Have there be(en) bullshit or non-sensical philosophical schools or traditions established in academia? [closed]

Taking 'bullshit' as by H. G. Frankfurt, of course. The question is essentially about professionalization and institutionalization in academic philosophy: Is there any example of a philosophical ...
ac15's user avatar
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2 votes
3 answers
81 views

Recommendations on moral philosophy [closed]

I am a complete beginner to philosophy, but I would like to understand certain topics and I would appreciate it if you give me recommendations about what to read. Nowadays, I am mostly interested in ...
Ilaha Bakirli's user avatar
-3 votes
2 answers
98 views

Was Socrates actually martyred? [closed]

Was Socrates not really martyred? https://youtu.be/id0Kkq4VHDo?t=106
Ruminator's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
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All syllogism is addressed to that within the soul: Did Aristotle really said that?

All syllogism and therefore a fortiori demonstration, is addressed not to outward speech but to that within the soul. Did Aristotle really said that, and if so, where? The claim that he did is in I. ...
Speakpigeon's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
104 views

How did scholars of the past know the vacuous truth?

I know that vacuous truth is something that scholars have known implicitly since the past. However, in modern times, we can know that the vacuous truth is true through the truth table, but how could ...
user1274233's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
48 views

Did Gödel admire Russell? [closed]

The way we view the erecting of Principia Mathematica and Gödel’s subsequent incompleteness theorem(s) must be very different now from how it seemed back then. PM was basically the first attempt to ...
Julius Hamilton's user avatar
5 votes
2 answers
120 views

Is it knowledge about x to know that we can't know x?

I'm studying the Critique of Pure Reason. We have the claim: We can't know anything about things in themselves Which seems to have corollaries of the form: We can't know x about things in themselves ...
Mani's user avatar
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3 answers
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Is there a partly physical nature to infinitesimal limits that connects the utility of calculus with the quantized nature of small-scale physics?

One argument against calculus being physical is that since quantum mechanics has a quantized discrete nature, then physics does not truly have infinitesimal quantities. Yet, calculus and its ...
William Solomon's user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
83 views

What are the earliest advocates for animal rights and/or moral equivalency between killing animals Vs. Killing humans?

The vegans make arguments that killing sentient animals is murder in the same way that it would be to kill a human. They argue that the distinction is arbitrary, and from a very rationalist, ...
TylerDurden's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
52 views

Which of the following are examples of Kantian noumena?

Which of the following are examples of Kantian noumena? a) Higgs boson particle b) A table c) A newly discovered planet d) All and none of the above [Mel Thompson - Philosophy in a week] The answer ...
XVI's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
395 views

'Philosophy' and 'Darshan' : are they same or different?

As in India what we call 'Darshan' (दर्शन) in Sanskrit, it literally translate as "Visualization" or "Realisation". The western term, "philosophy" literally means "...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
225 views

What value had Bertrand Russell attached to philosophy?

Late in life Bertrand Russell said that were he young again he would not take to philosophy. What value, if any, did he attach to philosophy at that point?
h_undatus's user avatar
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-2 votes
4 answers
134 views

How does one demonstrate that philosophy isn’t a time sink? [closed]

Why should anyone else’s thoughts on any philosophical subject bear any more importance than mine? You will read this and presume arrogance but this isn’t about me. The question is more general. ...
Baby_philosopher's user avatar
19 votes
19 answers
4k views

If philosophy is based on reason and rationality, then why is there so much disagreement?

If philosophy is based on reason and rationality, then why is there so much disagreement? Is it due primarily to operating with different premises absent consensus on their truth, so that dissenters ...
Just Some Old Man's user avatar
2 votes
5 answers
315 views

Have there been attempts at modeling 'essential reality'?

By "essential reality" I mean consistent aspects of human nature and those of our temporary and ever-changing physical environment(domain of science) as well as overlapping views on ...
Mark_NoBadCake's user avatar
0 votes
4 answers
211 views

Is reason under challenge? [closed]

I find the resurgence in the new century of pseudoscience, religious extremism, and irrationalism disturbing. Reason was pre-eminent throughout the previous two centuries. Is reason being seriously ...
Meanach's user avatar
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3 votes
3 answers
123 views

Is necessary existence a property?

If existence is not a property then doesn't it follow that necessary existence is also not a property? If it is then why?
Vihan 's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
78 views

I cannot find 20th-Century Philosophy: The Speculative Tradition, by Peter Koestenbaum. Where should I look for it?

The paperback series Readings in the History of Philosophy is an 8 volume series about Western philosophy, from the Presocratics to the twentieth century. The Volumes and their Editors are: Greek ...
Arz's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
169 views

What are some ground breaking results achieved by philosophers from Asia, and why they are ground breaking? [closed]

A general question from today asked for ground breaking results in philosophy. The answers were not unexpected for everyone, who has been trained at a department of philosophy in Europe, North-America ...
Jo Wehler's user avatar
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3 votes
4 answers
924 views

What are some ground breaking results in philosophy? [closed]

Science has given many concrete results and we all agree upon its utility as in the form of technology. There are some gray areas in science on which we do not agree. Similarly for history , geography ...
Dheeraj Verma's user avatar
-1 votes
4 answers
502 views

If something is massless like light does it exist?

I'm asking: If something is massless does it exis? Because in Einstein's equation E=mc2 Einstein said and I quote: If something doesn't have mass like light it would move at the speed of light.
Ahmad Ghandour's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
112 views

Memory vs. Repetition in Deleuze

In the introduction of Difference and Repetition, Deleuze seems to contrast repetition with memory. How does this really cash out? Does this mean Deleuze is making the claim that memory is a kind of ...
Akin667's user avatar
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0 votes
2 answers
70 views

Do geographical directions have philosophical implications?

Is it true that the geographical directions express different philosophies on the whole ? And if yes , then in which ways ? For example West is different from East at least philosophically. East lays ...
Dheeraj Verma's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
91 views

Do some philosophers-of-mathematics give priorities to different epistemologies of math, rather than (over)committing to one epistemology?

Take Kant and Gödel, for example. Kant was neither just an intuitionist nor just a formalist, nor even absolutely a non-realist (the forms of space and time are, after all, empirically real and ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
159 views

Physics and the question of context or environment

This is a reality check type of question. I am interested in whether it's a valid distinction and whether it's been considered by others. It occured to me the other day that the issue of 'context' or '...
Wayfarer's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
19 views

What are the origins of the A,E,I,O notation for the four types of categorical proposition? [duplicate]

The labels A, E, I, and O are traditionally given to the four types of categorical proposition. Each is one of the first two vowels in the Latin words affirmo (I affirm) or nego (I deny), a usage that ...
tell's user avatar
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0 votes
0 answers
38 views

consistent textbooks on history of philosophy

In my country there are several philosophy olympiads for school students and if you win one of them, you get the opportunity to enroll in any university in the country at the Faculty of Philosophy. ...
Poor Knight's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
2k views

Has Scientism drastically declined as a worldview in the last 100 years?

I have recently had fellow posters here question my understating that scientism is on the decline. I also have recently seen several members here assert themselves to be advocates of scientism, so I ...
Dcleve's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
152 views

Did Hobbes start social contract theory?

There seems to be an implicit assumption in Western philosophy that social contract theorizing begun -- or only begun in earnest -- with Hobbes. As an example, this Stanford Encyclopedia entry assumes ...
flen's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
112 views

Are there similar theory to Nikolay Bugaev's idea of "emergent morality"?

I need someone's insight to put into perspective the thoughts of an author I discovered only recently. Although this author's idea seems very intuitive - the kind of idea you might have as a child or ...
user21102's user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
158 views

How did Aristotle discover his logic?

Supposedly Euclid employed analysis (conclusions→principles) and not synthesis (principles→conclusions) when he devised his definitions/postulates/axioms in his Elements. How did Aristotle discover ...
Geremia's user avatar
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2 votes
1 answer
97 views

Kant's commentary on the faculty of judgment: did he anticipate things like incompleteness/halting/truth-undefinability?

First, to cite the (Meiklejohn) version of the argument: If understanding in general be defined as the faculty of laws or rules, the faculty of judgement may be termed the faculty of subsumption ...
Kristian Berry's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
544 views

What are some problems or counterpoints to Oneness or Non-Dualism

I have a pretty decent understanding of what its proponents think, but I can’t seem to find anything criticizing the view as more places link back to pro-oneness sources. So in to get both sides of ...
Craigory 's user avatar
8 votes
2 answers
1k views

Why did Descartes claim that animals have no souls if they have the pituitary?

As far as I understand it, Descartes claimed that the pituitary is the "antenna" through which the brain and the soul communicate, and he also claimed only human beings have souls. So, how ...
FlatAssembler's user avatar

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