Questions tagged [history-of-philosophy]

The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. Issues specifically related to history of philosophy might include (but are not limited to): How can changes in philosophy be accounted for historically? What drives the development of thought in its historical context? To what degree can philosophical texts from prior historical eras be understood even today?

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107 views

How did the Anaximander’s fragment challenge Greek philosophy?

Whence things have their origin, Thence also their destruction happens, As is the order of things; For they execute the sentence upon one another – The condemnation for the crime – In conformity with ...
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Plants: Aristotles vs. modern biology

Corals, sea anemones, sponges, etc. are animals according to modern biology. Mold or mushrooms are not plants and belong to their own realm of fungi. The Venus flytrap is a plant, though it is capable ...
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Could you recommend an anthology of modern philosophy texts?

Could you recommend an anthology of modern philosophy texts? I was tempted to buy the book Modern Philosophy: An Anthology of Primary Sources by Roger Arlew, but it is out of my financial reach. Do ...
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207 views

Do philosophers in twentieth century tend to ignore the history of philosophy?

as I read the history of western philosophy up to early nineteenth century, I have a feeling that the philosophy is somehow "making progress" over this long period. Not that philosophers ...
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Definitions of fairness

I am not a philosophy scholar, but I'm looking for - relatively recent and well-accepted - definitions of the notion of fairness. John Rawls, for example, outlines what he believes is fair in "A ...
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23 views

What are some good books about the concept of 'logos' in ancient Greek philosophy?

I am trying to do some reading on the concept of 'logos' in Greek philosophy before the time of Philo of Alexandria. Every time I try to search for "Books about Logos" or even "Books ...
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46 views

A question about Berkeley's attack on Locke's distinction of primary and secondary qualities

I'm reading W. T. Jones account of Berkeley's theory, and I find that in general Berkeley convincingly demonstrated some weak points that are fundamental to Locke's theory. But there is one of his ...
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131 views

Why would some philosophers consider Nietzsche the "Godfather of Fascism"?

I'm really new to philosophy and heard a lot that Nietzsche was considered the "godfather of fascism". The phrase seems to be a recent development according to Google ngram, but it is ...
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81 views

What does sensible images being "not material but spatial" mean in Plato's theory?

I'm reading W. T. Jones' "A History of Western Philosophy Vol 1: The Classical Mind". In page 152 there is a passage that says (in explaining Plato's theory of Physics): It is also ...
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Epictetus quote on Love and Wise

" If someone is incapable of distinguishing good things from bad and neutral things from either – well, how could such a person be capable of love? The power to love, then, belongs only to the ...
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Who was the first philosopher who explicitly connected belief with habit formation?

Aristotle speaks about habit but I can't find anywere in his works any explicit connection of habit with belief. Is there any subsequent philosopher who explicitly connected belief with habit ...
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312 views

Who first used the phrase "Deflationary Theory of Truth"?

SEP's history of the deflationary theory of truth does not explain the origins of the term Deflationary, but does point to the first people who "explicitly defended it". The deflationary ...
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Would Hannah Arendt classify raking leaves each autumn as labour or work?

Hannah Arendt was a Holocaust survivor and philosopher. In her work, The Human Condition, she takes an interest in the understanding of human activities. From WP: The Human Condition,1 first ...
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(Why) is this negative outlook on the concept of philosophy misguided?

The following is my negative outlook on philosophy. I'm interested in learning the reasons I might be wrong, outcomes and examples I'm not aware of, lest I express this opinion in the future and seem ...
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28 views

Being vs beings [closed]

I'm reading a book of Martin Heidegger in which i found the term 'being' and 'beings' I tried to know more about it but there is not much reference on internet.. Please explain both the term according ...
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51 views

What is philosophical position is it for only the things that are in your immediate vicinity to exist at any given time?

You can only know so much about what is going on around you. For example, it is impossible for me to know what is going on in China right now if I am in South America. I might try to look at the news, ...
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76 views

How does the Problem of the Many relate to Calculus?

How does the Problem of the Many relate to the philosophical basis of Calculus, if at all?
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223 views

Why the linguistic turn at early 20th century? Why not the physics/psychology turn? [closed]

Early 20th century philosophy went through a "linguistic turn", presumably due to developments in mathematical logic by Frege and Russell, followed by Wittgenstein's work. However, in the ...
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Is Socrates a teacher despite him denying so?

Despite him denying that he actually taught his followers anything and that they did everything on their own accord, what argument could be put forth that he was actually a teacher
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27 views

What arguments does Plato's Lysis put forth from 216 to 223?

I don't understand this part. He seems to go back and forth on whether they support one another and whether they are actually successful. Some serious clarification is needed.
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119 views

Are most philosophers analytic nowadays?

I know, the expression "analytic philosophy" is not something perfectly clear-cut, nor it is devoid of variations and multiplicity. The same can be said about "continental philosophy&...
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Are there any philosophers after Kant but before Peirce that developed the Kantian concept of schema further?

I was reading Peirce's writings on schemata and I was wondering if there was any other known philosopher before him who tried to use or extend schemata in his work. Are there any philosophers after ...
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66 views

What did John of Salisbury write about the concepts of "logical depth and breadth"?

In the Digital companion to Peirce site there is the following text about the logical depth and breadth: …it was between six and seven centuries ago that John of Salisbury spoke of it as “fere in ...
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Hakha-Manners (Philosophy of Ancient Iranians)

What was philosophy of ancient Iranians known as Hakha-Manners? Which is mispronounced in Greek to Achaemenid, In fact, this is the full and correct meaning of Achaemenid empire: the empire of the ...
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156 views

Spinoza’s argument for substance monism

Substance monism is a very significant part of Spinoza’s philosophy. But after reading the first part of his Ethics, an understanding of his arguments for it eludes me. Specifically, I have trouble ...
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146 views

Does anyone know where the following ideas are found in Peirce's collected works?

The following excerpt is from the book "Science Wars: What Scientists Know and How They Know It": Charles Sanders Peirce [...] argued that our ideas are a response to problems that we ...
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How do we know which dialogues Plato didn't write?

I understand that there are dialogues of Plato for which the authorship is contested, with some more than others. How are the dialogues determined to be spurious? Is it a different process for ...
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180 views

Plato's influence on Christianity

Is Christianity influenced by some of Plato's ideas? In particular, I thought that the notion in Christianity of God creating man in his own image was heavily reminiscent of Plato's forms, where God ...
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102 views

What does Spinoza mean by Acquiescentia in se ipso?

In Part V of Spinoza’s Ethics the pinnacle of human freedom and understanding is discussed as the viewpoint from eternal blessedness. How are we to characterize or interpret this doctrine of ...
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plato, spinoza, leibnitz and aristotle

I find this sentence without any elaboration- Spinoza’s philosophy was static as that of Plato while Leibnitz’s system was dynamic as that of Aristotle" What does it mean ? Thank You.
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Was the idea of different physical realms advanced by other philosophers?

Platonists think there's a realm where concept exist, but that realm isn't physical. I am wondering if the possibility of various other physical realms existing was ever proposed and if it was ...
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Help with the details and source of an anecdote, Wittgenstein and Carnap on the paranormal

There is an anecdote in which the participants were Wittgenstein and Carnap (or Hempel). One of the two had a book on parapsychology/paranormal stuff. The other scolded him for this. The book owner ...
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What is the difference between western and other philosophies?

Is western philosophy simply based on scientific knowledge. Is is only about scientific or Academia knowledge? Why is it called western? Because it has its roots in ancient Greece where western ...
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38 views

Who was the first philosopher to make the distinction between slow rational thinking and fast instinctual one?

Scottish commonsensism seems to have something that resembles the rational/instinctual dichotomy but the concept may go further back to the ancient Greeks.
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38 views

Plato preempting Aristotle?

Did Plato ever anticipate and address the the Aristotelian position of identifying the existence of universals with their instantiations? If so, how have his arguments fared? Did Aristotle address ...
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202 views

The Byzantine intellectual tradition....an underreported History?

There are of course volumes and volumes of questions on Ancient Greek Philosophy and Philosophers; this is to be expected since Ancient Greece was and is still largely viewed as the Fountainhead of ...
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Is Augustin's love sermon 7 available online in Portuguese?

Many philosophers think highly of Augustin's Homily 7, on the First Epistle of John, as a moral philosophical consideration. Is there a Portuguese version available online?
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50 views

How does Kant treat the sublime in the Anthropology compared with the Third Critique?

Is Kant treating the sublime consistently in the third critique and Anthropology? In other words, what are the differences being addressed in these empirical and transcendental inquires regarding the ...
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77 views

According to Aristotle, how many unmoved movers are there in the universe?

In On The Heavens, Aristotle described there are multiple unmoved movers in different celestial spheres as the final causes of celestial movements, however, in the Physics, Aristotle concluded there ...
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128 views

Renovating transcendental idealism

In the 20th century, philosophers such as P.F Strawson and Paul Guyer attempted to disentangle (what they viewed as) the unsavory components of Kant's system of transcendental idealism from (what they ...
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186 views

The study of systems of thought from the perspective of Anthropology

This question surrounds whether there is a sub-field of philosophy or sub-field of anthropology that studies systems of thought from an anthropological perspective: as a thing that humans do. In other ...
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180 views

What are considered landmark ideas on happiness among modern philosophers?

Yes, there was Aristotle's understanding of it as an objective, and Epicurus providing a recipe. David Hume concurred, "The great end of all human industry is the attainment of happiness. For ...
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271 views

Who was the first philosopher to build a comprehensive philosophy around the concept of power?

Friedrich Nietzsche seems to have written extensively about power but there seem to be much earlier philosophers who wrote extensively about power like Spinoza. Who was the first philosopher to build ...
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45 views

Did Anselm of Canterbury know any Greek philosophy?

Since Anselm seems to be one of the early major medieval philosophers I was wondering if he knew any Greek philosophy.
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How Biases and Prejudices Deviate the Philosophy of Peace in round table meeting of world politics

Why do politically strengthened nations deviate from the ideal of peace building and misuse power through bias, prejudice, and subjugation of others towards "peace," but not actual, absolute ...
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155 views

Generating the simplest sort of Cosmological Argument

First, I am not a philosopher, but rather an applied mathematician. However, the Cosmological Argument has always intrigued me. At times I feel that all attempts are necessarily hopeless, at other ...
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152 views

Inhowfar is scientific inquiry modeled on the interrogation of witches?

(Carolyn) Merchant sees proof in the link between persecution of witches and development of modern science in the work of Francis Bacon, one of the reputed father of the new scientific method, showing ...
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Is there a clear cut distinction between Philosophy and Philology?

I’ve been recently mulling over semantic and linguistic issues and I realized that my understanding of these fields may not correspond to the commonly accepted wisdom, so to speak. Although the ...
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62 views

Did the philosophy of Heidegger lead to any advances in scientific knowledge? [closed]

Heidegger seems to be one of ther most controversial figures in philosophy as some philosophers consider him the greatest philosopher of the 20th century and others a charlatan. Analytic philosophers ...
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What is the origin of the idea that moral realism requires a god?

This idea has always been very strange to me. The first time I encountered this idea was when I was required to read about the Euthyphro Dilemma in college. It felt like a whole dialogue about ...

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