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Questions tagged [idealism]

Idealism is the metaphysical belief that reality is immaterial and based upon mental constructs.

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Why has the philosophy of Bishop Berkeley fallen out of favor in academic philosophy?

I studied George Berkeley as an undergraduate, and though I absolutely loved his work and his philosophy, many of my peers, and even some of my professors, found his philosophy wholly unappealing, ...
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How does Schopenhauer maintain idealism without God?

In Berkeley's idealism God holds the world together, enabling us to avoid chaos and experience a shared, orderly reality. But Schopenhauer is an idealist and an atheist. How can we then explain the ...
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What is Hegelian dialectic of good and evil and how does it relate to binary opposition in structuralism?

What relation does the Hegelian dialectic have to the structuralist notion of binary opposition? If it has any, where does the synthesis fit in to the dualistic nature of the structuralist system? ...
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Why does Chalmers' argument about “the hard problem” not entail idealism?

Chalmers famously argues in Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness: At the end of the day, the same criticism applies to any purely physical account of consciousness. For any physical process we ...
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Is there a known limit to relationship between physics and mathematics?

I am much interested in discussions such as Wigner's "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences". It's quite amazing that mathematics so well applies to our universe, and ...
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What is the relation between Spirit and Time in Hegel?

Martin Heidegger in his Being and Time criticized the connection between Spirit and Time proposed by Hegel saying that: Hegel shows the possibility of the historical actualization of spirit "in ...
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Dynamic concept of “truth”

I've recently read a book in which a certain sentence sparked a question in my mind: "the Platonic philosophy is a search for truth, the certain truth. Such truth... is necessarily static" (...
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If the Platonic world exists how would we know?

If we assume existence of a non-material world of ideas that mathematics describes there are some questions that a Platonist has to address. 1) How is the ideal world related to the real one, where ...
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Was Plato an idealist or a realist?

I'm a bit confused. As far as I know realism is opposed to idealism. But we can say that Plato was an idealist when speaking about Plato's forms. We also talk about Plato's realism in the philosophy ...
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German philosophers on (french) revolution

I'm reading an essay written by the Italian philosopher Remo Bodei, where he examines the thoughts of some German philosopher on the french revolution and revolutions in general. According to him, ...
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Objection to Berkeley's Master Argument

The Master Argument (roughly) states that it is not possible for sensible objects to exist without a mind. Now part of Berkeley's Argument goes as follows: Suppose something exists without being ...
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How is Kant's transcendental idealism related to Berkeley's subjective idealism?

My understanding is that Berkeley considered the outside world to have no existence at all, and took the statement "It's all in the mind" literally, whereas Kant argued that the outside world exists ...
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Does idealism allow for thought without any sensory input?

As I understand, idealism is the view that the mind is fundamental and the body as well as the world we perceive are just derivatives of the mind. Is this right? If so, if we had a hypothetical being,...
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What is Light in Berkeley's Metaphysics?

What is light before we see it? For Berkeley, everything that has not been perceived doesn't exist, but light needs to exist unperceived before it reaches the eyes. How is this possible in Berkeley'...
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What should I read before reading Hegel's “Phenomenology of Spirit”?

Are there some writings that I should make myself familiar with beforehand, in order to rightly understand Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit? I am thinking of works like Spinoza's Ethics German ...
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Is German idealism ontological, epistemic, or something more abstract?

On one hand Kant's transcendental idealism seems purely ontological: His noumena/phenomena distinction is essentially a form of dualism. Add to that: Marx considered himself a materialist in ...
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Are consistent solipsists limited to the singular when referencing themselves?

If you are an Idealistic Solipsist, is it not true that you must say "I am a Solipsist." or "I am the Solipsist."? One cannot say "I am one of the Solipsists" for example. Are there other ...
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How are epistemological and ontological realism related?

The SEP article on idealism begins: ... [this article] examines the relationship between epistemological idealism (the view that the contents of human knowledge are ineluctably determined by ...
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Why do current academics refuse to acknolwedge idealism as viable?

Berkeley is often sited as the "ideal" of idealism. Most of the academic arguments attack his various points, but his finer points seems to escape the academic community. Kant gives some effort in ...
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Kant's thing(s) in themselves and atomic physics

In answer to someone's question regarding Kant's idealist view of space vs. modern science, someone referred to the dichotomy between a cup as normally perceived and a cup as a collection of atoms. If ...
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What are the rebuttals (if any) to Berkeley's dismissal of “primary qualities”?

I am rereading Berkeley's Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous and am curious about any subsequent works which actively rebut his dismissal of primary qualities. From the first dialogue: ...
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In what ways are Kierkegaard and Hegel similar?

It is well known that Kierkegaard's philosophy is, in large part, a response to or critique of Hegel's philosophy. How, then, are they similar? Is there any way to reconcile their differences, or to ...
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How materialism can be consistent in the context of qualia and simplicity?

Apologies for my English. Some thoughts from the camp of idealists. :) The following is the explanation of the question in the title. I think that the fact that in our days physicists may be ...
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Can a rationalist ever be a materialist?

Note that I am using rationalist in its strict philosophical sense, as in rationalist like Descartes or Leibniz, not rationalist as it might be understood colloquially. from the Encyclopedia ...
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For Berkeley, how do subjective experiences exist?

In Three Dialogues, Berkeley advances a theory of subjective idealism. Things only exist as experiences of individual consciousnesses. These things are static and themselves unthinking, as they are ...
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Is the difference between logical possibility and physical possibility an argument against Idealism?

In typical sci-fi scenarios, the characters realize that they are living in a simulation, or that everything is a dream, etc....once they notice that the laws of physics don't always hold, or that ...
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Have any thinkers applied empiricism to the dreaming and deep sleep states?

The Mandukya Upanishad is a philosophical text found in the Vedas, which are among the most important scriptures of Hinduism. Here is what V. Subrahmanya Iyer says in a foreword to a translation of ...
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Why are Idealists not entitled to believe in laws of nature?

Source: p 120, Philosophy: A Complete Introduction (2012) by Prof Sharon Kaye (MA PhD (Philosophy), U. Toronto). The following question appears in Chapter 8 entitled Hume and causality. Which of ...
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Berkeley's idealist view of physical objects

Berkeley sees objects as a set of ideas. His strict view on objects allows for cases like his relativity of perception argument (where a bucket of water can be both warm and cold, one person can find ...
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What does Husserl say about 'space'?

What does Husserl say about 'space'? I'd like to know what it's real / ideal status is, especially, and if agreeing with him on what "space" is precludes all forms of scientific realism. Id there's ...
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How is the conflict between created by reason and external aspects of knowledge resolved?

Pragmatism is, roughly, the stressing of actions in talking about the content of knowledge. Externalism is, roughly, the stressing of dependence on the external public world in talking about ...
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Kant and Error in his Transcendental Idealism

How would Kant handle errors in our perceptions of the world in his transcendental idealism? If what is external to us is so heavily meditated and contributed to by our mental apparatuses, how do you ...
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When Aristotle is speaking of things that are clear to us, is he thinking of entities or formulas?

I'm reading the commentaries of Aristotle's physics book I by William Charlton and he starts this debate in his commentaries. But it was too brief for me to grasp. As I understand, the question is ...
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Is Idealism incoherent as incapable of explaining activities without entities

Late YouTube philosopher Knownnomore had a 3-part video series explicating his arguments against Metaphysical Idealism. One argument he had was this: that Idealism is incoherent because the notion ...
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In Kants terminology what differentiates *transcendental apperception* from *empirical apperception*

First, some historical context: The term apperception originates with René Descartes in the form of the word apercevoir in his book Traité des passions. Leibniz introduced the concept of ...
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Is Brandom's account of history satisfactory to justify itself against doubts?

Brandom's idealism is multi-faceted and complicated. A rough summary of it might be as follows: Rationality is a conceptual normality, a typical way we do things. Specifically, it is a practical ...
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Why is Hegel more important than Schelling?

I am curious why Hegel became more important than Schelling. First of all, how would Schelling's ideas differ from Hegel's? I read that there are some supernatural elements in Schelling's, but do not ...
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Is everything that exists an actual entity?

My professor asked us to think about this question as we go through the unit but I am not sure what the question means. I would greatly appreciate could help me understand the question or give me a ...
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Schelling: from where, or how exactly does the a priori ideas come?

I'm reading Schelling's System of Transcendental Idealism, and in the end of the 3rd part (the end of the theoretical philosophy) schelling disproves the idea that a priori ideas are inherent in us ...
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Transcendental Idealism and past time

According to Kant, time is part of the phenomenal realm. What would Kant say about past events such as the big bang when no minds existed? Would he say we can't know such things?
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What is meant by transcendental idealism?

What exactly is meant by transcendential idealism? Is it simply the idea that we can't possibly observe things-in-themselves directly (like idealism), so (unlike idealism) we know they exist, but not ...
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Why are Plato's Idealism and German Idealism so different?

Plato's Idealism seems to imply an objectivity and an anti-pluralism, instead rationalizing forms into main groups, yet German Idealism seems to do just the opposite. I was wondering why the use of ...
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What's the role of “idealistic” philosophies of well-regarded scientists?

What's the role of "idealistic" philosophies of well-regarded scientists such as Max Tegmark's "Mathematical Universe Hypothesis"? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Our_Mathematical_Universe It has been ...
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Kant's Transcendal Idealism and Empirical Realism

This confuses me. Transcendental idealism and an empirical realism seem to contradict each other; how can you believe in an empirically observable mind-independent reality (which I would presume would ...
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How would Kant defend the concept of the noumenon against Berkeley's charge?

Berkeley asserts that it is meaningless to speak of things-in-themselves that are not subject to human evaluation. Given that, no ampliative judgements can be made by postulating a causal relation ...
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How can philosophy and soc. sci. avoid idealism, which seems so prevalent? [closed]

So, again and again I notice that even philosophers, soc. scientists etc. that claim to not be prone to be idealist (since it's unfashionable to be labeled as an idealist, because it's anti-realist), ...
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What is the difference between idealism and materialism?

I understand what materialism is, but idealism - not so much. I know however they are opposing views, and would like to know what are the differences. Analogies would be greatly appreciated.
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Is there an atheistic idealism that rejects noumena but isn't solipsism?

I know of one answered question on a similar subject, but mine is not quite the same thing. Berkeley's idealism holds that to be is to be perceived---nothing can exist, or can be thought to exist, ...
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Is there a special language for expressing subjective idealism?

Subjective idealism is the monistic metaphysical doctrine that only minds and mental contents exist. It entails and is generally identified or associated with immaterialism, the doctrine that material ...
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Can you list other Collingwood's Absolute Presuppositions?

Robin G. Collingwood's posited the existence of absolute presuppositions (AS). As a reminder, presuppositions are for Collingwood assumptions and guiding precepts that are closed to further analysis ...