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help with understanding Deleuze's argument on "difference first, identity second"

if i'm not mistaken, deleuze says you only know about "apple" because you know apple is not an orange, is not a tea, is not justice, is not rock,... so by differentiating "apple" ...
4 votes
7 answers
1k views

Identity is circular?

SEP on identity says: Identity can be characterised ... as the relation everything has to itself and to nothing else. But this is circular, since "nothing else" just means "no non-...
8 votes
4 answers
5k views

Can a person's continuity of consciousness be broken and a new person arise?

I realize that the person I am as I type these letters and the person I am at the end of this sentence is slightly different. Change occurs all the time and infact change within my brain is the reason ...
7 votes
10 answers
3k views

What are the philosophical solutions to "ship of Theseus" problem of identity?

Ship of Theseus is a thought experiment in which every piece of a ship kept in a harbor is replaced one at a time. The questions are: would the end result be the same ship or a new ship? If it is not ...
2 votes
3 answers
130 views

What kind of free will does Harry Potter have while travelling in time?

In the movie A prisoner of Azkaban, Harry Potter is saved by a mysterious figure that looks like his father shortly before passing out. After that, he learns that time travel is real. He travels to ...
30 votes
19 answers
9k views

Is Alzheimer’s disease evidence for the non-existence of the soul?

As Alzheimer's disease kills off neurons, a person's personality and cognitive abilities gradually fade away. Doesn't this suggest that the self or "soul" is simply an emergent property of ...
2 votes
10 answers
1k views

Same vs identical vs equal objects

1st case Consider two objects made from the same factory without any difference (an ideal scenario). Can we say that the two objects are the same? I would say no because one may be produced earlier ...
3 votes
5 answers
160 views

Is the moment of change numerically identical with the time it occurs?

Is the moment of change numerically identical with the time it occurs? If the moment of change is today at noon, is that the exact same time as today at noon, whatever it is else happens then? It may ...
2 votes
2 answers
1k views

Is there a logical fallacy to identity politics?

My understanding of Identity Politics goes as follows: A is a member of/identifies with group X B is not a member of/does not identify with group X A frames challenge S in terms of X Because B doesn’...
5 votes
1 answer
106 views

What would be Gilbert Ryle's necessary and sufficient conditions for being a human being?

One of my students asked me this question and I can't answer it. I thought it was a great question. Any suggestions on an equally good answer? (I'm not a trained philosopher, I'm a historian. I teach ...
10 votes
4 answers
363 views

Is the question of Identity more difficult than the question of Free Will?

The experience of free will certainly exists. That is, whatever is happening when a decision is made by a conscious agent, the agent experiences feelings like indecision, fear, or desire feeding into ...
2 votes
7 answers
150 views

Paradox of the Loving "I": Is there any theory to answer my Paradox?

I came up with this when I was reading about the Paradox of Fiction in one of my Aesthetic philosophy texts. Here it is: The Paradox of the Loving Individual: (1) One experiences themselves as a ...
2 votes
2 answers
379 views

I wanted to ask about "EGO", how philosophers have defined ego? [duplicate]

Many philosophers have touched the topic of "Ego". For instance, Freud, Buddha, Iqbal and many others. We all have fragile ego. In simple terms, how ego can be defined? What is the most ...
1 vote
1 answer
79 views

Can Leibniz's law be used to define identity?

In the identity entry of the Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, section 2, first paragraph (https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/identity/#LogiIden), it says that it would be a circular definition. ...
4 votes
3 answers
339 views

Does the requirement to use preferred gender pronous preclude the participation of people whose faith teaches that gender cannot be changed?

There are numerous cases where the views held by different people clash. Homosexual intercourses are one such obvious example: many religious denominations (for example Catholicism) consider them ...
2 votes
3 answers
140 views

Is Schrödinger's cat a problem of how we define identity?

If we consider that a cat is composed of numerous atomic particles, defining particles in superposition presents no issue. A cat is a human construct to represent a grouping of atoms, and notions of ...
0 votes
0 answers
20 views

Why is it not plausible that the criterion of identity determines the criterion of application for concrete objects?

In the identity entry of the Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, section 4, third paragraph (https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/identity/#CritIden), says the following (referring to concrete objects)...
9 votes
16 answers
6k views

If I upload my brain into a computer is it still me?

I think the answer is yes but I know a lot of people disagree. So, I would like to ask these people when exactly does it stop being me. Let's say I want to upload my brain into a computer using the ...
21 votes
16 answers
4k views

Why am I this particular human being?

Some philosophers dismiss this as a question about a tautology: when Alice asks "Why am I Alice?", this is equivalent to her asking "Why is Alice Alice?", which is not an interesting question. But ...
2 votes
5 answers
354 views

Quid sit ego, what is the self?

From my little, torn, pouch of experiences, I present the following sentences, heard/read, it matters not. My body My brain My mind My soul Suggests, ex mea sententia, that, the ego (self) is not an ...
6 votes
10 answers
494 views

Is there any evidence to suggest that our conciousness regularly replaces itself?

I heard on some article that conciousness cannot persist through time and that every second ( or an even shorter duration ) it changes to a new one, is there any evidence to suggest this? Is our ...
2 votes
4 answers
159 views

how these two statements can be true at same time?

If you consider any two numbers that are not equal in value (2 is not 3), and it is a true statement that they are not. However, it is also true to state that they are the same: both are numbers. You ...
15 votes
8 answers
5k views

When and why do we say that two things are the same?

In a preceeding question I have asked about the foundations of rational reasonning. It seems the concept of identity plays a key role. However "identity" is not observed in the real world: our mind ...
0 votes
7 answers
471 views

How can I maintain integrity when requested to use gender pronouns yet still be loving?

I have friends who request certain gender pronouns are used, which I do not believe to be correct. I have thought about this topic at some length and concluded that while using these pronouns would be ...
5 votes
2 answers
832 views

Why is the identity predicate needed?

In Logic: The Laws of Truth the identity predicate is introduced as an extension of general predicate logic (GPL). The following propositions are given as motivating examples: (1) "Mark Twain is ...
1 vote
4 answers
93 views

Quality vs. Quantity

Suppose 2 hypothetical fruits A and B. A's mass is 10 g and B's mass is 15 g. In addition, A only contains vitamin A and B only contains vitamin B. Each vitamin A molecule weighs 200 picogram and each ...
3 votes
2 answers
725 views

Is everything identical to itself, or merely every existing thing?

One of the properties of identity is that everything is identical to itself. But, does "everything" mean literally everything, or merely every thing that exists? For example, I don't think 1/...
2 votes
0 answers
85 views

A question on quantified modal logic

I originally posted this on math.stackexchange.com, but I’m cross-posting it since I know there are good modal logicians on here too. Also, I already asked a similar question here: Identity in ...
0 votes
0 answers
47 views

Can everything have a vague identity?

For any objects, it is traditionally assumed that that either the objects are identical or distinct, and not both. Vague identity is a view that rejects this absoluteness of identity. Its proponents ...
1 vote
0 answers
71 views

Is the bardo forever?

Consciousness as such is - I think - said to be made of vague parts; it has parts that are vague, e.g. the sensation of seeing red. I think this means that borderline cases of my consciousness exist ...
0 votes
0 answers
62 views

Explaining the existence vs. explaining the nonexistence of necessary beings

I understand that I am waiving issues like the absolute/relative simplicity/complexity distinction, the difference between the logic of existence and the logic of nonexistence per se, etc., so I ...
0 votes
0 answers
22 views

Could a being be defined as such that its transworld identity is identical to its in-world identity?

I was reading through Collier[21], which is about Lewisian theism, alongside the SEP article on transworld identity, and have assumed that: The concept of transworld identity (TI) is not necessarily ...
2 votes
2 answers
164 views

Why is equality not considered the fundamental unit / principle in nature?

(I don't know how to ask this other than by laying out my worldview. Needless to say, this is here to be dissected and disemboweled. I realize the broad sweeps will irk people. I hope that by ...
2 votes
1 answer
127 views

Is the law of identity the same for negative expressions?

Is the law of identity the same for negative expressions? Does 'if not p then not p' have any specific meaning in philosophy? I am asking because I am trying to work out whether the vagueness of 'p' ...
2 votes
1 answer
95 views

Would a divine being having properties of multiple orders undermine the point of attributing divine simplicity to this being?

It seems as if debates about divine natures, among the "laity," are usually preoccupied with what have been called first-order properties of those natures. So we see the perennial quibbling ...
0 votes
1 answer
547 views

Does capability design force a re-eximantion of anonymity?

Following up on this recent question and generalizing, let's consider capability-oriented design. In this framing, a capability is a communicable token of authority; possession of a capability is ...
1 vote
2 answers
74 views

Rewriting Theseus ship problem

Let's consider a band (just called Theseus band, for convenience) consist of 3 members, Alex, Brad, and Charles. After the first year, Charles left, and Gary joined the band. After the second year, ...
1 vote
0 answers
59 views

Why does A in Max Black's "Identity of Indiscernibles" assert that there is nothing verifiably different between the twin world and no-twin world?

i just finished "Identity of Indiscernibles" by Max Black and I'm a bit confused. In Max Black's paper, A (the character that asserts that the identity of indiscernibles is true) says to B (...
1 vote
1 answer
243 views

Where does the canon event theory of identity formation come from?

There is an idea in the new Spider-man movie Spider-Man: Across the Spider-Verse, where spider-men through different dimensions have to deal with inter-dimensional problems. In it, one critical part ...
2 votes
1 answer
42 views

Does counterpossible reasoning limit the value of using folk intuitions as a parameter in conceptual analysis?

It's too long to quote as well as I'd like, but the section on moral responsibility in the SEP article on empirical moral psychology includes as an example: ... Nahmias, Morris, Nadelhoffer and ...
3 votes
1 answer
249 views

Where does 'numerical' in 'numerical identity' come from?

L.S., the word numerical has several meanings. E.g. numerical in the meaning ''given by numbers', and when saying Numerical Identity, meaning 'only one'. When was the first time the word was ...
5 votes
2 answers
362 views

Identity in Quantified Modal Logic

Why is ¬(◇(a=b)∧◇¬(a=b)) a validity in Quantified Modal Logic (QML)? For example, let a:=“the present King of France” and b:=“the richest bald person alive”. Then, it seems ◇(a=b)∧◇¬(a=b) is not a ...
0 votes
1 answer
71 views

Is the ideal agent the ideal observer?

Is the ideal agent the ideal observer? Without googling it, I mean the former is the best moral agent, and the latter some meta-ethical (can't recall what meta-ethics) abstraction that judges everyone'...
2 votes
0 answers
40 views

Would a universal (tran)set violate the law of identity?

At least, here's the argument that opened the question for me: The anticlass-theory principle: there are no discrete proper classes. There are intensional elementhood parameters such that if some set ...
23 votes
13 answers
9k views

Why is it wrong to answer a question with a tautology? Isn't "2+2" correct when answering 'What is "2+2"'?

Many times in class, we are asked to answer, "What is 2+2?" or "What is the derivative of the function x?". It would not be the intended answer to write "2+2" or "...
1 vote
2 answers
81 views

The Leibniz - Turing Dilemma

The Turing Test is basically the idea that when (a) computer and a human can't be differentiated, that computer is an AI. Identity of Indiscernibles boils down to if A is indistinguishable from B then ...
2 votes
2 answers
208 views

Is moral responsibility consistent from an ontological perspective of change?

Let a being be arbitrary, suppose that this being has the capacity to be morally responsible. (EDIT 2) Regardless of group morality, but assume this being is in a moral environment with no moral ...
3 votes
2 answers
555 views

What determines a person's gender identity?

I've noticed that when many transgender allies and even some transgender people themselves have their claims investigated that they, in my estimation, can never really answer them too adequately: one ...
-1 votes
3 answers
297 views

Is it possible for two things to be equal but not identical?

Is it possible for two things to be equal, but not identical? For example, would it be correct to say that 2+2 is equal to 1+3, but 2+2 is not identical to 1+3? If not in that particular case, is ...
1 vote
0 answers
69 views

Why is being yourself so highly valued among existentialist philosophers? [closed]

From the Disney movie Wreck-it-Ralph: I'm bad, and that's good. I will never be good, and that's not bad. There's no one I'd rather be than me. Is this sentiment wise? Is it truly good to be whoever ...