Questions tagged [induction]

The tag has no usage guidance.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
2 votes
3 answers
47 views

Is there a term that means "soft validity?"

By "soft validity" I mean this: The formal definition of validity is that if the premises are true, the conclusion must be true. I will call this "hard validity." "Soft ...
user avatar
  • 195
2 votes
5 answers
415 views

Are mathematical proofs subject to the problem of induction?

When I consider a proof, such as Euclid's proof of the infinitude of primes, it can give a sense that something necessarily true has been obtained. I cannot remember where I got the idea, but a few ...
user avatar
  • 241
1 vote
2 answers
148 views

What does philosophy of science say about an example that "supports" a hypothesis but at the same time seriously undermines it?

A hypothesis can be seriously weakened by an example that supports it. Assumption: No one can be taller than 9 feet. Example: There is a person who is 8 feet 1 inch tall". The discovery of such a ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
36 views

What does the 3rd edition of Fact, Fiction, and Forecast say about grue?

On my website, I have reproduced the passages from Nelson Goodman's book Fact, Fiction, and Forecast that define his famous predicate grue (and related predicates such as emeruby). In fact, I have ...
user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
90 views

Causation with Inductive/Deductive Logic

I'm sofa-philosopher and I have a case I can't quite dismantle. My friend (let's call him John) just made a statement that I find philosophically weak, and I'd like to run it thru you guys. So, John ...
user avatar
  • 123
0 votes
1 answer
149 views

Non-Deductive methods in philosophical argumentation

I'm a mathematician, and I'm trying to expand my understanding of the philosophical basis of mathematics. Mathematics is very much taught axiomatically establishing deductive theories, but philosophy ...
user avatar
  • 132
1 vote
2 answers
242 views

Is mathematical induction deduction, and if so, why is it so named?

By induction, I mean this screenshot from this Youtube video Abduction as an Aspect of Retroduction | Chiasson, Phyllis | Commens Induction: The prefix “in,” also from the Latin has to do with ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
71 views

Does 1. extra-, 2. intra-polation fall under abduction, induction or deduction?

How does extrapolation relate to abduction, deduction, and/or induction? Scilicet, does abduction, deduction, and/or induction fully encompass Extrapolation? Same question for Interpolation. I ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
174 views

Science, where is the difference between law and principle?

Theories contain laws, definitions, explain and predict aspects of nature. A law in itself does not explain, but only reflects cause-effect relationships of empirical data (usually in the form of a ...
user avatar
  • 9
0 votes
0 answers
39 views

What can be known and what can be believed when neither induction nor deduction is justified?

Kant is well known for taking seriously the lack of justification for induction voiced by Hume and finding what is left for us to be able to know and believe. I wonder, with the knowledge that the ...
user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
89 views

Is there such a thing as inductive reasoning?

When I form hypotheses, don't I actually only use deduction instead of induction? Suppose I observe that the sun rises 5 days in a row, so I hypothesise that the sun rises every day. But for this I am ...
user avatar
  • 9
2 votes
3 answers
144 views

The problem of induction and coherentism

My understanding of the problem of induction is this. You want to hypothesise that the future is like the past (let us call this hypothesis H), and so justify the scientific practice of making ...
user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
126 views

Are all deductive arguments - formal arguments?

For an example, it looks like I have an example of an argument which is both deductive and informal: Gabriel is a wolf Gabriel has a tail. Therefore, Gabriel’s tail is the tail of a wolf I consider it ...
user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
148 views

Working of Mathematical Induction

I am aware of what proof by Mathematical Induction is. I have also used it in numerous proofs. However, I don't understand formal correctness/validity of the method down to the level of Peano Axioms. ...
user avatar
  • 1,003
2 votes
4 answers
260 views

Doesn't infinite regress go backward forever? Is SEP wrong?

I have always understood infinite regress to mean going backwards forever. (Forever as in endlessly, not necessarily temporally). A model would be the negative integers, if we viewed them as a model ...
user avatar
  • 2,871
1 vote
2 answers
158 views

Hume's induction using circularity fallacy

Hello everyone, i was going through this reading of a book in which it present Hume's induction wrong using circularity . I was trying to find some error in it as given there but could not pinpoint ...
user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
92 views

Are the premises of deductive arg's. founded upon inductive cases?...help is what I am in need of

Let's take this example of a deductive argument: P1: Monkeys like bananas. P2: Lucy is a monkey. C: Therefore, Lucy likes bananas. Disregarding whether this argument is true or false, how does one ...
user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
135 views

Does all deductive knowledge stem from inductive observation?

Given the premise that deductive reasoning needs a premise statement to get started, ultimately do these premises come from inductive observation? e.g. When the sun is out it’s daytime. The sun is out....
user avatar
  • 121
2 votes
0 answers
118 views

Questioning Kant's resolution to induction

From what I haved gathered from the first sections of the Critique, Kant wants to resolve the problem of induction by adding the a priori concept of (the necessity between) cause and effect to our ...
user avatar
  • 428
0 votes
0 answers
78 views

Probabilistic Interpretation of Hume's Problem of Induction

I am a mathematician who has recently started delving into philosophy and I had a thought today. From what I understand, the scientific method can be described in the following terms. Suppose we have ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
72 views

Inductive strength & tracking requirement

An inductive inference is usually considered strong if its conclusion is probably true, given true premises. In Tracking Track Records, Peter Lipton (giving credit to Nozick) suggests that a strong ...
user avatar
  • 260
4 votes
2 answers
374 views

Does Bayesian epistemology solve Hume’s problem of induction?

Or, does it just sidestep it? Or, is it just completely unrelated to it? I’m having trouble seeing what the connection might be. It seems to me that Bayesians solve it by saying, take: Your prior ...
user avatar
  • 3,759
0 votes
2 answers
171 views

Does this argument disprove immaterialism?

-Every observation we have analysed has a material cause. -By inductive reasoning, all observations have materialistic causes. -Hence, there are no immaterial causes and immaterialism doesn't exist. (...
user avatar
  • 109
0 votes
1 answer
81 views

Resolve the contradiction/paradox [closed]

-We have observed that the color of a raven is black. -Every non-blue thing I have observed in my room is non-raven. -By inductive reasoning, every non-blue thing I will observe in my room is non-...
user avatar
  • 109
1 vote
1 answer
55 views

Trying to understand the fallacy in my inductive reasoning regarding this conclusion? [closed]

Consider the following statements: Anna told you she failed her physics midterm. Anna hasn't been in physics class since the teacher graded the exams. Anna has been in sociology class, which meets ...
user avatar
  • 111
0 votes
0 answers
41 views

Is it standard to distinguish two versions of the hypothetico-deductivist conception of science : confirmation approach and falsificationism?

In his course on Philosophy Of Science, Pr Folse ( Loyola University New Orleans) distinguishes two trends in the " empricist consensus " ( that emerged in the 19th century) : inductivism ...
user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
119 views

Inductive argument for Con(ZFC)

If you ask a mathematician, particularly a set theorist, about whether ZFC is consistent, they will answer that we can't know for sure because of Gödel's theorems. If you ask what evidence at all is ...
user avatar
  • 457
2 votes
0 answers
145 views

Material theory of induction: why not abandon induction altogether?

John Norton defends a material theory of induction, based on the idea that universal inference schemes cannot account for the strength of inductive inferences. Whether a specific induction is good or ...
user avatar
  • 260
2 votes
1 answer
104 views

Are inferences in everyday life often combinations of inductive, deductive and other possible methods of inference?

Logicians have distilled methods of inference into some fundamental kinds like deduction and induction. In everyday conversation, though, we are constantly making inferences both inductively and ...
user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
278 views

Why is mathematical induction so applicable in mathematics?

Mathematical induction is a way to give finite proofs for (some of the) claims that concern infinitely many objects. For this reason it can be thought of as an approximation of the ω-rule. However, ...
user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
359 views

Are all non-deductive arguments inductive?

I am having troubles with understanding this question. Can someone give me an example/insight about where to go from here?
user avatar
  • 31
1 vote
1 answer
67 views

What kind of inference do we need to confirm the form of an experimental law?

Imagine scientists observe a linear correlation between two measurable quantities x and y in some type of phenomenon. They induce an experimental law: y=kx. However, the degree of precision of their ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
41 views

better definition of induction

Consider this argument: I saw him hit the lady with a stone in the head. The lady will likely die. For me this is inductive argument. But I got impression some places define inductive argument such ...
user avatar
  • 1
3 votes
2 answers
156 views

Justification for the paradigm of abductive reasoning

In Chance , Love and Logic, Peirce defines reasoning into two categories: analytic and non-analytic. All forms of reasoning have three fundamental components: rule, case, result. Analytic reasoning ...
user avatar
  • 31
1 vote
0 answers
69 views

Inductive reasoning and probability: probability of the conclusion versus probability of the supporting relation?

It is often admitted that inductive reasoning has something to do with probability. While in a ( valid) deduction the premises necessarily imply the conclusion, in an inductive reasoning the premises ...
user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
129 views

Can the word "probably" be used in a proposition? (logic)

I'm interested in applying logic to day-to-day reasoning. The problem is that formal logic seems really restrictive to limit inductive arguments to be only universal ("all swans are white"). Few ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
55 views

Hume on Induction vs Education

Hume thinks that mental ideas are built upon repeated observations and habituation, namely by induction. As far as I know, the principal alternative to this view is given by Descartes, postulating ...
user avatar
  • 263
2 votes
3 answers
134 views

What is the justification for the claim that observing something that is both a raven and black increases the likelihood that all ravens are black?

Suppose that I have access to a machine that allows me to input a positive integer (perhaps up to ten decimal digits) and the machine will -- depending only on the input -- output a statement. If the ...
user avatar
3 votes
7 answers
1k views

Problem of Induction: Dissolved

Whenever we make some claim about the world, the phenomena, whatever you want to call it, we necessarily draw from our immediate and past experience, i.e. we engage in any act of induction in the most ...
user avatar
  • 141
0 votes
0 answers
106 views

Clarifications on 1) Modus Ponens, 2) Modus Tollens, 3) Inductive, 4) Incomplete based on examples

My second lecture on Hypothetico-Deductive methods (based on Popper's falsification theory). In the class, we were given the following examples. We had to classify which examples belong to 1) Modus ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
194 views

Reasoning for Inductive inference?

Just out of curiosity, if I should replace the deductive inference related questions to inductive inference, then which are true? Inductive inferences rearrange current knowledge in such a way that ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
99 views

Clarification regarding "Hume's argument against the justifiability of induction"

This is my quiz problem, in particular on "Hume's argument against the justifiability of induction". I was supposed to do True and False. That every inference is either inductive or deductive. That ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
129 views

Contemporary problem of induction

What is the contemporary opinion on the problem of induction? It seems that no justification can be given, according to the SEP and an Oxford lecturer. It seems that the SEP does not provide any ...
user avatar
  • 131
2 votes
2 answers
81 views

Is argument from need a valid type of reasoning, even in some cases?

To begin with, I know that if I need X , does not necessarily mean that X exists. But in some cases, it seems very convincing that if I need X then X exists. These are some examples : If I am ...
user avatar
  • 2,349
1 vote
2 answers
462 views

Confusion between deductive and inductive reasoning definitions

The following arguments is always given as a classic example to deductive reasoning: All men are mortal. (First premise) Socrates is a man. (Second premise) Therefore, Socrates is mortal. ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
93 views

Should we accept non-predictive inductive arguments based on cultural judgments?

Some inductive arguments that are taken seriously are based on observations about society/culture that cannot be objectively confirmed and do not produce any predictions. Does that make them less ...
user avatar
15 votes
12 answers
15k views

What fallacy is assuming something is the case because of past events

I'm sure this is a simple question. What I am referring to is disbelieving someone on Day 20 because they have lied every day previous to Day 20. Another example is the boy who cried wolf. The 50th ...
user avatar
  • 461
1 vote
2 answers
159 views

Is deduction based on induction?

I'm wondering if deduction is in the end based on induction. The problem of induction discovered by the Scottish philosopher David Hume is quite well known. On the other hand, it's commonly supported ...
user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
166 views

Is symbolic regression Popperian or inductivist?

This has been on my mind for a few days. I'd love a criticism of my arguments outlined here: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/fallible-ideas/9bcC5WN6bLs. I'll re-issue them here: While ...
user avatar
4 votes
3 answers
271 views

Can all inductive arguments be written as deductive arguments?

Whenever I see inductive arguments being used, it seems as though they can be redone by simply making certain assumptions and rephrasing the argument as a deduction from those assumptions. For ...
user avatar
  • 383