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Questions tagged [induction]

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10answers
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What fallacy is assuming something is the case because of past events

I'm sure this is a simple question. What I am referring to is disbelieving someone on Day 20 because they have lied every day previous to Day 20. Another example is the boy who cried wolf. The 50th ...
0
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2answers
86 views

Is deduction based on induction?

I'm wondering if deduction is in the end based on induction. The problem of induction discovered by the Scottish philosopher David Hume is quite well known. On the other hand, it's commonly supported ...
0
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3answers
52 views

Is symbolic regression Popperian or inductivist?

This has been on my mind for a few days. I'd love a criticism of my arguments outlined here: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/fallible-ideas/9bcC5WN6bLs. I'll re-issue them here: While ...
4
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3answers
163 views

Can all inductive arguments be written as deductive arguments?

Whenever I see inductive arguments being used, it seems as though they can be redone by simply making certain assumptions and rephrasing the argument as a deduction from those assumptions. For ...
1
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0answers
32 views

Can the conclusion of an inductive argument be that there is only one exception to the list of evidentiary claims?

Can this be an example of an inductive argument? Premise 1: Country A rejected idea Z. Premise 2: Country B rejected idea Z. Premise 3: Country C rejected idea Z. Premise 4: Country D rejected ...
0
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5answers
300 views

How do I operate with philosophers if I reject deductive reasoning?

Deductive reasoning is the one that takes premises for granted. I never do it. Therefore I never do deductive reasoning. Well, enough jokes. It is safe to assume that deductive reasoning never should ...
2
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3answers
254 views

If nature is inherently imprecise, how is it so easy for us to conceptualize mathematical certainties?

In modeling any real physical system, we are required to employ inductive reasoning. We can never be completely certain about the state or properties of any system or of any future observation we will ...
3
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3answers
694 views

Inductive and deductive arguments and mathematical induction

I started reading Paul Teller's A Modern Formal Logic Primer. In the first chapter, the book presents the inductive and deductive arguments with the following examples: The inductive argument: ...
1
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2answers
210 views

Can inductive arguments be made in first order logic and, if not, why not?

After reading a question by rus9384 Why is faulty generalization called an informal fallacy? I wondered whether induction can be part of any argument in first order logic (FOL). rus9384 symbolized ...
2
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3answers
109 views

What's wrong with the following argument regarding temporal limits?

Let us suppose there is a limit: you cannot buy something after 10:00PM. From the position of law, of course "cannot" must be taken directly. But from the position of common thinking, people are less ...
3
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4answers
556 views

How did Aristotle define induction so incorrectly?

From: Philip Johnson-Laird BA PhD Psychology (UCL), Stuart Professor of Psychology Emeritus at Princeton. (Author isn't a logician.) How We Reason (1st edn 2008). p. 431, for Ch. 1. The ...
4
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5answers
193 views

Questioning determinism (example)

Questioning the world's deterministic behaviour, I shall present an example which seems to defy any certainty about the recurrence of events and is (obviously) a result of faulty logic, but I would ...
7
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4answers
306 views

Is actual infinity physical infinity? Or just the axiom of infinity?

I've always been a little confused on this point. My (second-hand) understanding of Aristotle's difference between potential and actual infinity is this: We all have an intuition of the counting ...
1
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0answers
46 views

Swinburne's solution to Grue

In the new riddle of induction, Swinburne proposes the idea that there is a genuine distinction to be made between the predicate 'green' and the predicate 'grue' in that 'green' is a qualitative ...
4
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1answer
184 views

How does a Bayesian respond to the Grue-hypothesis?

According to Bayesian inference/confirmation theory, your confidence in a hypothesis increases as you observe more and more evidence predicted by that hypothesis (according to bayes theorem and the ...
4
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3answers
123 views

On the circularity of induction

Hume's problem of induction is that any attempt to justify induction would lead to a circular argument. Can someone give an example to illustrate this and maybe explain the problem more?
3
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3answers
148 views

Hume's problem of induction

Hume argued that assuming A causes B isn't the same as arriving at a truth of logic. However, even though Hume cautioned the "the mental habit" of induction should be used carefully he still believed ...
1
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1answer
92 views

Help me understand Earman and Salmon's pragmatic vindication

"Hume showed convincingly that, if nature is uniform, inductive reasoning will work very well, whereas, if nature is not uniform, inductive reasoning will fail. This much is pretty easy to see. [Some ...
1
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0answers
46 views

Need of philosophy experts! [closed]

I am a beginner philosopher and I have to explain Hume's "Doubts concerning the operations of the understanding" as part of a short exercise for my class. Would anyone be willing to give their honest ...
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0answers
79 views

How does Hume justify his account of the origin of causation to a general sense?

Hume's account of causation explains why we think specific things have causes and explains them in terms of their constant connection in our minds such that we associate them by "habit". Hume brings ...
3
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2answers
405 views

Does Popper's falsification view of the problem of induction have any implications for the NEW riddle of induction?

Popper claims to solve Hume's problem of induction by explaining that science does not use induction at all, but rather science can be described by the process of putting forward hypotheses and then ...
2
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1answer
60 views

Does Hume's skepticism about induction extend to his treatise?

Can we extend Hume's skeptical conclusions to the treatise itself? How far reaching is Hume's skepticism, and if it is all-encompassing, then what is (as he sees) the purpose of his work?
4
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5answers
460 views

Is Goodman's new riddle of induction a restatement of Hume's problem of induction?

I was reading Goodman's [Facts, fictions and forecasts] and was confused by the new riddle of induction. I don't really see what's new about it, it seems to me like a restatement of Hume's problem ...
10
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2answers
571 views

Is there a deduction analog to the problem of induction?

Aren't deductive and inductive reasoning equally unjustified? So, inductive reasoning is going from specifics to general, whilst deductive reasoning is going from general to specific. But in deductive ...
6
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3answers
95 views

How applicable is the problem with induction to real life?

I am an engineer and know nothing about philosophy, my friend is an economist who argues that the problem with induction invalidates all predictions based on induction. I can understand this on a ...
6
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1answer
181 views

Do Hume’s Problem and Zeno’s Arrow Paradox have the same solution?

Both Hume’s Problem and Zeno’s Arrow Paradox freeze an observation in time. Do they have the same solution? To show that the future may not be predicted from the past, the test that David Hume ...
1
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1answer
71 views

What is an appropriate way to solve a Mill's method table, if it exists?

I'm being asked to determine the cause of a phenomenon using Mill's methods and a table of relevant factors. Below is the table: A B C D E Event * * * * * ...
7
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1answer
485 views

Why can't uniformity of nature (in principle) be proven deductively?

I've been reading about the problem of induction and I have trouble understanding the argument for nature's uniformity being impossible to prove deductively. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on ...
13
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3answers
994 views

Are “if smoke then fire” arguments deductive or inductive?

I'm new to philosophy and have a question regarding deductive vs. inductive reasoning: I'm told that "John ate a strange plant in the forest and got sick. Clearly, the plant made John sick." I ...
1
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0answers
72 views

Does reliabilism fall to the problem of induction?

From what I've gathered, reliabilism states that epistemic justification occurs when someone forms a belief via truth-conducive methods. However, doesn't this fall to the problem of induction? Isn't ...
1
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2answers
251 views

Based on evolution, do we arrive at deductive principles inductively?

If our knowledge of deductive principles is a result of evolution... doesn't this mean that we arrive at deductive principles inductively? Assuming deductive principles are beneficial for survival, ...
2
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1answer
419 views

Is this an inductive or a deductive argument?

Two flowers of the same cultivar were planted in adjacent plots . The first was fertilized with Miracle-Gro and it flourished (2); The second was not and it din't(3) . Therefore , Miracle-Gro ...
1
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2answers
82 views

What skeptical arguments do not use induction?

What skeptical arguments do not use induction? I haven't yet found anything which says these do not exist, so doubt that they don't. But I'm still intrigued, as SEP says that [a] way to motivate ...
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0answers
107 views

What are the modern views on the problem of induction? [closed]

The problem of induction was postulated by David Hume more than 200 years ago. I know that Karl Popper tackled the issue by using "innocent until proven guilty" approach. However, I would like to know ...
0
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3answers
193 views

Is this inductive or deductive?

The fact that we know we have a great great grandfather. Is the reasoning we use for this inductive or deductive?
5
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1answer
212 views

What is the name of the fallacy that denies inductive generalization based on emphasizing exceptions?

I am looking for the name of a logical fallacy that denies validity of induction based on an observed and repeated pattern (AKA statistics) by citing exceptions to the pattern which are outliers of ...
0
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2answers
233 views

Induction and prejudice

Is there any difference between prejudice and inductive reasoning (not mathematical induction)? If so, what is the difference?
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0answers
49 views

What sort of knowledge has been retained through theory change?

The wikipedia article on the PMI says When we develop a new theory, the central ideas of the old one usually become refuted. Parts of the old theory, however, we carry over to the new one This ...
3
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4answers
184 views

In what way does induction concern itself “entirely with justification”?

Karl Popper was "opposed to induction when it came to science", in the words of one of his reviewers, because Induction concerns itself entirely with justification – with establishing theories and ...
0
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1answer
140 views

Is logic based on uncertainty the fundamental logic?

Most formal logics are based on certainty, but certainty is only one probability among others, so a logic based on uncertainty and probability should be considered as the fundamental logic from which ...
3
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3answers
164 views

New riddle of induction; does the observer know the arbitrary time t?

Wikipedia, in "New riddle of induction", sets out Nelson Goodman's paradox as follows: Goodman defined grue relative to an arbitrary but fixed time t as follows: An object is grue if and only if ...
11
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4answers
459 views

What are the critiques of the “we might as well assume it” solution to the problem of induction?

I'm curious whether the following proposed solution to the problem of induction has ever been discussed in the literature: Either the future resembles the past or it does not resemble the past. If it ...
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4answers
2k views

Inductive conclusions go beyond the content of the premise(s)

In my textbook A Concise Introduction to Logic, the author states this: In general, inductive arguments are such that the content of the conclusion is in some way to "go beyond" the content of the ...
4
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3answers
2k views

Propositional Logic: How to prove the contraposition in the Fitch system?

Given that: p ⇒ q prove that: ¬q ⇒ ¬p using the Fitch system. (This being the proof of the Contraposition)
3
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1answer
171 views

Why is “similarity” not a logical relation? (from “Natural Kinds” by Quine)

I have two questions regarding Quine's paper “Natural Kinds”: Why isn't similarity a logical relation? Why is our ability to recognize similarity so fundamental? These two things are explained in ...
3
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1answer
177 views

Kant's Solution to Uniformity of Nature

I am aware that Kant addressed Hume's skepticism on causality, but I don't see anything in his CPR that solves the problems of induction and uniformity of nature in other contexts like everyday life, ...
4
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3answers
233 views

What are the Consequences of Rejecting Induction?

It seems to me that the rejection of the validity of induction would cause a deep skepticism in pretty much everything but most prominently in perception. If we can never assume uniformity of nature, ...
7
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5answers
169 views

Is this a fallacy: no argument against X, therefore X?

Recently I was talking to a friend of mine, a vegan. Here's what she said: "I was talking to a vegan philosopher once, and he said that he is a vegan because there is no good argument against veganism"...
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2answers
106 views

Is this type of induction a problem?

I can understand how the verification of hypotheseses based on inductive reasoning can be problematic, and I understand that a lot of prominent figures in philosophy are in opposition to this (Popper, ...
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4answers
89 views

How does a mechanism reduce 'the number of independent assumptions we need to make'?

The book only italicised; I added the majuscules. Source: pp 226-227, Think: A Compelling Introduction to Philosophy (1 ed, 1999) by Simon Blackburn  [...] As with Boyle's law, we can say that ...