# Questions tagged [induction]

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### How does abduction differ from inductive reasoning?

Consider this statement: Abductive reasoning typically begins with an incomplete set of observations and proceeds to the likeliest possible explanation for the set. But couldn't the same ...
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### The problem of induction and coherentism

My understanding of the problem of induction is this. You want to hypothesise that the future is like the past (let us call this hypothesis H), and so justify the scientific practice of making ...
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### Are all deductive arguments - formal arguments?

For an example, it looks like I have an example of an argument which is both deductive and informal: Gabriel is a wolf Gabriel has a tail. Therefore, Gabriel’s tail is the tail of a wolf I consider it ...
126 views

### Working of Mathematical Induction

I am aware of what proof by Mathematical Induction is. I have also used it in numerous proofs. However, I don't understand formal correctness/validity of the method down to the level of Peano Axioms. ...
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### Doesn't infinite regress go backward forever? Is SEP wrong?

I have always understood infinite regress to mean going backwards forever. (Forever as in endlessly, not necessarily temporally). A model would be the negative integers, if we viewed them as a model ...
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### Inductive strength & tracking requirement

An inductive inference is usually considered strong if its conclusion is probably true, given true premises. In Tracking Track Records, Peter Lipton (giving credit to Nozick) suggests that a strong ...
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### Hume's induction using circularity fallacy

Hello everyone, i was going through this reading of a book in which it present Hume's induction wrong using circularity . I was trying to find some error in it as given there but could not pinpoint ...
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### Are the premises of deductive arg's. founded upon inductive cases?...help is what I am in need of

Let's take this example of a deductive argument: P1: Monkeys like bananas. P2: Lucy is a monkey. C: Therefore, Lucy likes bananas. Disregarding whether this argument is true or false, how does one ...
141 views

### Is symbolic regression Popperian or inductivist?

This has been on my mind for a few days. I'd love a criticism of my arguments outlined here: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/fallible-ideas/9bcC5WN6bLs. I'll re-issue them here: While ...
124 views

### Does all deductive knowledge stem from inductive observation?

Given the premise that deductive reasoning needs a premise statement to get started, ultimately do these premises come from inductive observation? e.g. When the sun is out it’s daytime. The sun is out....
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### Questioning Kant's resolution to induction

From what I haved gathered from the first sections of the Critique, Kant wants to resolve the problem of induction by adding the a priori concept of (the necessity between) cause and effect to our ...
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### Is actual infinity physical infinity? Or just the axiom of infinity?

I've always been a little confused on this point. My (second-hand) understanding of Aristotle's difference between potential and actual infinity is this: We all have an intuition of the counting ...
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### Probabilistic Interpretation of Hume's Problem of Induction

I am a mathematician who has recently started delving into philosophy and I had a thought today. From what I understand, the scientific method can be described in the following terms. Suppose we have ...
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### Inductive argument for Con(ZFC)

If you ask a mathematician, particularly a set theorist, about whether ZFC is consistent, they will answer that we can't know for sure because of Gödel's theorems. If you ask what evidence at all is ...
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### Does Bayesian epistemology solve Hume’s problem of induction?

Or, does it just sidestep it? Or, is it just completely unrelated to it? I’m having trouble seeing what the connection might be. It seems to me that Bayesians solve it by saying, take: Your prior ...
162 views

### Does this argument disprove immaterialism?

-Every observation we have analysed has a material cause. -By inductive reasoning, all observations have materialistic causes. -Hence, there are no immaterial causes and immaterialism doesn't exist. (...
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-We have observed that the color of a raven is black. -Every non-blue thing I have observed in my room is non-raven. -By inductive reasoning, every non-blue thing I will observe in my room is non-...
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### Trying to understand the fallacy in my inductive reasoning regarding this conclusion? [closed]

Consider the following statements: Anna told you she failed her physics midterm. Anna hasn't been in physics class since the teacher graded the exams. Anna has been in sociology class, which meets ...
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### Why is mathematical induction so applicable in mathematics?

Mathematical induction is a way to give finite proofs for (some of the) claims that concern infinitely many objects. For this reason it can be thought of as an approximation of the ω-rule. However, ...
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### Is it standard to distinguish two versions of the hypothetico-deductivist conception of science : confirmation approach and falsificationism?

In his course on Philosophy Of Science, Pr Folse ( Loyola University New Orleans) distinguishes two trends in the " empricist consensus " ( that emerged in the 19th century) : inductivism ...
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### Material theory of induction: why not abandon induction altogether?

John Norton defends a material theory of induction, based on the idea that universal inference schemes cannot account for the strength of inductive inferences. Whether a specific induction is good or ...
3k views

### How does induction relate to falsifiability?

I was thinking about the question How can I know that I am not immortal? and started wondering about the relation between induction and falsifiability. Regarding the cited question, one thinks: well, ...
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### What fallacy is assuming something is the case because of past events

I'm sure this is a simple question. What I am referring to is disbelieving someone on Day 20 because they have lied every day previous to Day 20. Another example is the boy who cried wolf. The 50th ...
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### Are inferences in everyday life often combinations of inductive, deductive and other possible methods of inference?

Logicians have distilled methods of inference into some fundamental kinds like deduction and induction. In everyday conversation, though, we are constantly making inferences both inductively and ...
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### Are all non-deductive arguments inductive?

I am having troubles with understanding this question. Can someone give me an example/insight about where to go from here?
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### What kind of inference do we need to confirm the form of an experimental law?

Imagine scientists observe a linear correlation between two measurable quantities x and y in some type of phenomenon. They induce an experimental law: y=kx. However, the degree of precision of their ...
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### better definition of induction

Consider this argument: I saw him hit the lady with a stone in the head. The lady will likely die. For me this is inductive argument. But I got impression some places define inductive argument such ...
329 views

### Do Hume’s Problem and Zeno’s Arrow Paradox have the same solution?

Both Hume’s Problem and Zeno’s Arrow Paradox freeze an observation in time. Do they have the same solution? To show that the future may not be predicted from the past, the test that David Hume ...
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### Justification for the paradigm of abductive reasoning

In Chance , Love and Logic, Peirce defines reasoning into two categories: analytic and non-analytic. All forms of reasoning have three fundamental components: rule, case, result. Analytic reasoning ...
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### Can the word "probably" be used in a proposition? (logic)

I'm interested in applying logic to day-to-day reasoning. The problem is that formal logic seems really restrictive to limit inductive arguments to be only universal ("all swans are white"). Few ...
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### Inductive reasoning and probability: probability of the conclusion versus probability of the supporting relation?

It is often admitted that inductive reasoning has something to do with probability. While in a ( valid) deduction the premises necessarily imply the conclusion, in an inductive reasoning the premises ...
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### Hume on Induction vs Education

Hume thinks that mental ideas are built upon repeated observations and habituation, namely by induction. As far as I know, the principal alternative to this view is given by Descartes, postulating ...
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### What is the justification for the claim that observing something that is both a raven and black increases the likelihood that all ravens are black?

Suppose that I have access to a machine that allows me to input a positive integer (perhaps up to ten decimal digits) and the machine will -- depending only on the input -- output a statement. If the ...
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### Problem of Induction: Dissolved

Whenever we make some claim about the world, the phenomena, whatever you want to call it, we necessarily draw from our immediate and past experience, i.e. we engage in any act of induction in the most ...
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### Clarifications on 1) Modus Ponens, 2) Modus Tollens, 3) Inductive, 4) Incomplete based on examples

My second lecture on Hypothetico-Deductive methods (based on Popper's falsification theory). In the class, we were given the following examples. We had to classify which examples belong to 1) Modus ...
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### Reasoning for Inductive inference?

Just out of curiosity, if I should replace the deductive inference related questions to inductive inference, then which are true? Inductive inferences rearrange current knowledge in such a way that ...
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### Clarification regarding "Hume's argument against the justifiability of induction"

This is my quiz problem, in particular on "Hume's argument against the justifiability of induction". I was supposed to do True and False. That every inference is either inductive or deductive. That ...
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### Confusion between deductive and inductive reasoning definitions

The following arguments is always given as a classic example to deductive reasoning: All men are mortal. (First premise) Socrates is a man. (Second premise) Therefore, Socrates is mortal. ...
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### Contemporary problem of induction

What is the contemporary opinion on the problem of induction? It seems that no justification can be given, according to the SEP and an Oxford lecturer. It seems that the SEP does not provide any ...
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### Is argument from need a valid type of reasoning, even in some cases?

To begin with, I know that if I need X , does not necessarily mean that X exists. But in some cases, it seems very convincing that if I need X then X exists. These are some examples : If I am ...
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### Recursive definitions. Am I sane?

"The difference between me and a madman is the madman thinks that he is sane. I know that I am mad." ~ Salvador Dalí There are many terms defined in a recursive manner, e.g.: A person A is sane if ...
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### Should we accept non-predictive inductive arguments based on cultural judgments?

Some inductive arguments that are taken seriously are based on observations about society/culture that cannot be objectively confirmed and do not produce any predictions. Does that make them less ...
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### Why is argument by analogy invalid?

There is a well known fallacy called the "argument by analogy" fallacy. As I understand it, the fallacy occurs in a situation where someone makes a reasonable comparison between two situations and ...
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### New riddle of induction; does the observer know the arbitrary time t?

Wikipedia, in "New riddle of induction", sets out Nelson Goodman's paradox as follows: Goodman defined grue relative to an arbitrary but fixed time t as follows: An object is grue if and only if ...
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### Has the Problem of Induction been solved?

The problem as to acquiring knowledge about times where we cannot experiment/observe. For e.g, you haven't seen the future, so you cannot make any definitive statements, or rather, scientifically ...
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### Is deduction based on induction?

I'm wondering if deduction is in the end based on induction. The problem of induction discovered by the Scottish philosopher David Hume is quite well known. On the other hand, it's commonly supported ...
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### Can all inductive arguments be written as deductive arguments?

Whenever I see inductive arguments being used, it seems as though they can be redone by simply making certain assumptions and rephrasing the argument as a deduction from those assumptions. For ...
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### Can the conclusion of an inductive argument be that there is only one exception to the list of evidentiary claims?

Can this be an example of an inductive argument? Premise 1: Country A rejected idea Z. Premise 2: Country B rejected idea Z. Premise 3: Country C rejected idea Z. Premise 4: Country D rejected ...