Questions tagged [induction]

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4
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3answers
286 views

On the circularity of induction

Hume's problem of induction is that any attempt to justify induction would lead to a circular argument. Can someone give an example to illustrate this and maybe explain the problem more?
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Hume's problem of induction

Hume argued that assuming A causes B isn't the same as arriving at a truth of logic. However, even though Hume cautioned the "the mental habit" of induction should be used carefully he still believed ...
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1answer
177 views

Help me understand Earman and Salmon's pragmatic vindication

"Hume showed convincingly that, if nature is uniform, inductive reasoning will work very well, whereas, if nature is not uniform, inductive reasoning will fail. This much is pretty easy to see. [Some ...
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0answers
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How does Hume justify his account of the origin of causation to a general sense?

Hume's account of causation explains why we think specific things have causes and explains them in terms of their constant connection in our minds such that we associate them by "habit". Hume brings ...
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How does abduction differ from inductive reasoning?

Consider this statement: Abductive reasoning typically begins with an incomplete set of observations and proceeds to the likeliest possible explanation for the set. But couldn't the same ...
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2answers
777 views

Does Popper's falsification view of the problem of induction have any implications for the NEW riddle of induction?

Popper claims to solve Hume's problem of induction by explaining that science does not use induction at all, but rather science can be described by the process of putting forward hypotheses and then ...
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1answer
78 views

Does Hume's skepticism about induction extend to his treatise?

Can we extend Hume's skeptical conclusions to the treatise itself? How far reaching is Hume's skepticism, and if it is all-encompassing, then what is (as he sees) the purpose of his work?
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797 views

Is Goodman's new riddle of induction a restatement of Hume's problem of induction?

I was reading Goodman's [Facts, fictions and forecasts] and was confused by the new riddle of induction. I don't really see what's new about it, it seems to me like a restatement of Hume's problem ...
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Is there a deduction analog to the problem of induction?

Aren't deductive and inductive reasoning equally unjustified? So, inductive reasoning is going from specifics to general, whilst deductive reasoning is going from general to specific. But in deductive ...
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3answers
216 views

How applicable is the problem with induction to real life?

I am an engineer and know nothing about philosophy, my friend is an economist who argues that the problem with induction invalidates all predictions based on induction. I can understand this on a ...
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2answers
332 views

Do Hume’s Problem and Zeno’s Arrow Paradox have the same solution?

Both Hume’s Problem and Zeno’s Arrow Paradox freeze an observation in time. Do they have the same solution? To show that the future may not be predicted from the past, the test that David Hume ...
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1answer
179 views

What is an appropriate way to solve a Mill's method table, if it exists?

I'm being asked to determine the cause of a phenomenon using Mill's methods and a table of relevant factors. Below is the table: A B C D E Event * * * * * ...
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1answer
980 views

Why can't uniformity of nature (in principle) be proven deductively?

I've been reading about the problem of induction and I have trouble understanding the argument for nature's uniformity being impossible to prove deductively. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy on ...
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Are "if smoke then fire" arguments deductive or inductive?

I'm new to philosophy and have a question regarding deductive vs. inductive reasoning: I'm told that "John ate a strange plant in the forest and got sick. Clearly, the plant made John sick." I ...
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0answers
112 views

Does reliabilism fall to the problem of induction?

From what I've gathered, reliabilism states that epistemic justification occurs when someone forms a belief via truth-conducive methods. However, doesn't this fall to the problem of induction? Isn't ...
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2answers
493 views

Based on evolution, do we arrive at deductive principles inductively?

If our knowledge of deductive principles is a result of evolution... doesn't this mean that we arrive at deductive principles inductively? Assuming deductive principles are beneficial for survival, ...
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1answer
563 views

Is this an inductive or a deductive argument?

Two flowers of the same cultivar were planted in adjacent plots . The first was fertilized with Miracle-Gro and it flourished (2); The second was not and it din't(3) . Therefore , Miracle-Gro ...
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2answers
111 views

What skeptical arguments do not use induction?

What skeptical arguments do not use induction? I haven't yet found anything which says these do not exist, so doubt that they don't. But I'm still intrigued, as SEP says that [a] way to motivate ...
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227 views

Is this inductive or deductive?

The fact that we know we have a great great grandfather. Is the reasoning we use for this inductive or deductive?
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1answer
282 views

What is the name of the fallacy that denies inductive generalization based on emphasizing exceptions?

I am looking for the name of a logical fallacy that denies validity of induction based on an observed and repeated pattern (AKA statistics) by citing exceptions to the pattern which are outliers of ...
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368 views

Induction and prejudice

Is there any difference between prejudice and inductive reasoning (not mathematical induction)? If so, what is the difference?
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What sort of knowledge has been retained through theory change?

The wikipedia article on the PMI says When we develop a new theory, the central ideas of the old one usually become refuted. Parts of the old theory, however, we carry over to the new one This ...
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231 views

In what way does induction concern itself "entirely with justification"?

Karl Popper was "opposed to induction when it came to science", in the words of one of his reviewers, because Induction concerns itself entirely with justification – with establishing theories and ...
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1answer
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Is logic based on uncertainty the fundamental logic?

Most formal logics are based on certainty, but certainty is only one probability among others, so a logic based on uncertainty and probability should be considered as the fundamental logic from which ...
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193 views

New riddle of induction; does the observer know the arbitrary time t?

Wikipedia, in "New riddle of induction", sets out Nelson Goodman's paradox as follows: Goodman defined grue relative to an arbitrary but fixed time t as follows: An object is grue if and only if ...
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What are the critiques of the "we might as well assume it" solution to the problem of induction?

I'm curious whether the following proposed solution to the problem of induction has ever been discussed in the literature: Either the future resembles the past or it does not resemble the past. If it ...
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Inductive conclusions go beyond the content of the premise(s)

In my textbook A Concise Introduction to Logic, the author states this: In general, inductive arguments are such that the content of the conclusion is in some way to "go beyond" the content of the ...
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Propositional Logic: How to prove the contraposition in the Fitch system?

Given that: p ⇒ q prove that: ¬q ⇒ ¬p using the Fitch system. (This being the proof of the Contraposition)
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Why is "similarity" not a logical relation? (from “Natural Kinds” by Quine)

I have two questions regarding Quine's paper “Natural Kinds”: Why isn't similarity a logical relation? Why is our ability to recognize similarity so fundamental? These two things are explained in ...
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1answer
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Kant's Solution to Uniformity of Nature

I am aware that Kant addressed Hume's skepticism on causality, but I don't see anything in his CPR that solves the problems of induction and uniformity of nature in other contexts like everyday life, ...
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284 views

What are the Consequences of Rejecting Induction?

It seems to me that the rejection of the validity of induction would cause a deep skepticism in pretty much everything but most prominently in perception. If we can never assume uniformity of nature, ...
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280 views

Is this a fallacy: no argument against X, therefore X?

Recently I was talking to a friend of mine, a vegan. Here's what she said: "I was talking to a vegan philosopher once, and he said that he is a vegan because there is no good argument against veganism"...
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Is this type of induction a problem?

I can understand how the verification of hypotheseses based on inductive reasoning can be problematic, and I understand that a lot of prominent figures in philosophy are in opposition to this (Popper, ...
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How does a mechanism reduce 'the number of independent assumptions we need to make'?

The book only italicised; I added the majuscules. Source: pp 226-227, Think: A Compelling Introduction to Philosophy (1 ed, 1999) by Simon Blackburn  [...] As with Boyle's law, we can say that ...
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How can a false premise still produce a Strong Inductive Argument?

For brevity, I abbreviate: FP = False Premise, SIA = Strong Inductive Argument. Source: A Concise Introduction to Logic (12 Ed, 2014) by Patrick J. Hurley [p 46:] These four examples show that ...
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What aspects of the problem of induction are simplified if you employ the B-theory of time?

What aspects of the problem of induction are simplified if you consider the problem using the B-theory of time? A rough idea why this might be relevant: First consider an urn with a finite number of ...
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Bayesian statistics versus inductive skepticism

This is a question replicated here as advised by the statisticians' StackExchanged - see also https://stats.stackexchange.com/questions/178857/bayesians-positions-on-inductive-skepticism Philosopher ...
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Does induction presuppose simpler and more necessary inferences into the events in question, and if so, does this render the Humean analysis wounded?

Induction here is considered in light of the modern view, which is the practice of inferring from particulars to generals. Hume believes that such inference is very problematic since it holds two ...
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What is the difference between deductive and inductive reasoning?

I have been scouring over the internet in pursuit of a valid elaboration as to the difference between deductive and inductive reasoning, especially when explained using examples. The content that has ...
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Argument against democracy/socialism as an ethical system [closed]

If n=4 people showed up and told you, "we're going to take our combined wages and vote about what to do with half of it", most people would consider it theft at best. Even in theory, I can't imagine ...
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Propositions that are always true, but aren't tautologies?

Consider the following statements: "Snow melts during the day in the Sahara" "A human will die without oxygen" "Photons have no rest mass" These are statements that are always true, not because ...
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How do abduction and induction relate?

Is abduction a species of induction? Can we abduce what we could never know by induction? And has anyone tried to enumerate what we can know by induction?
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How does abstraction/generalization in mathematics fit into inductive reasoning?

I have a question about the nature of generalization and abstraction. Human reasoning is commonly split up into two categories: deductive and inductive reasoning. Are all instances of generalization ...
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What must nature's uniformity be like in order for scientific induction to be (non-deductively) valid?

I was thinking about one of the points made about induction, that it assumes that nature is uniform. So this leads me to the question about what this uniformity must be like in order for induction to ...
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Why is argument by analogy invalid?

There is a well known fallacy called the "argument by analogy" fallacy. As I understand it, the fallacy occurs in a situation where someone makes a reasonable comparison between two situations and ...
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What is the fallacy in this inductive argument for an infinite number of cities?

Think of a city, say the capital of Germany, Berlin. Now I can easily come up with another city, like San Fransisco. Now with two cities in mind, I can still come up with another city (Stockholm, for ...
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Has the Problem of Induction been solved?

The problem as to acquiring knowledge about times where we cannot experiment/observe. For e.g, you haven't seen the future, so you cannot make any definitive statements, or rather, scientifically ...
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1answer
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What does Samir Okasha mean in this quote about converting invalid to valid argument?

I'm reading Samir Okasha's article "Does Hume’s argument against induction rest on a quantifier-shift fallacy?" and in page 240 there is this: Consider a typical inductive inference of the sort ...
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Is Popper's Solution to the Problem of Induction still valid?

Popper (negativly) solved the problem of induction by showing that there is no class of sentences (analytic/synthetic, a priori/a posteriori) in which a principle of induction can be phrased without ...
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What did Wittgenstein mean by saying that the belief in the causal nexus is a superstition?

In the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Wittenstein says: 5.1361 The events of the future cannot be inferred from those of the present. Superstition is the belief in the causal nexus. I'm ...