Questions tagged [induction]

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126 views

What's wrong with the following argument regarding temporal limits?

Let us suppose there is a limit: you cannot buy something after 10:00PM. From the position of law, of course "cannot" must be taken directly. But from the position of common thinking, people are less ...
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1answer
518 views

Is this an inductive or a deductive argument?

Two flowers of the same cultivar were planted in adjacent plots . The first was fertilized with Miracle-Gro and it flourished (2); The second was not and it din't(3) . Therefore , Miracle-Gro ...
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3answers
430 views

Argument against democracy/socialism as an ethical system [closed]

If n=4 people showed up and told you, "we're going to take our combined wages and vote about what to do with half of it", most people would consider it theft at best. Even in theory, I can't imagine ...
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1answer
225 views

Problem of induction without i.i.d

In this paper of Aaronson's, a proof is given of Occam's razor by appealing to PAC learning. My understanding of Valiant's bounds for PAC learners is that it requires i.i.d. This is often a ...
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2answers
68 views

Is argument from need a valid type of reasoning, even in some cases?

To begin with, I know that if I need X , does not necessarily mean that X exists. But in some cases, it seems very convincing that if I need X then X exists. These are some examples : If I am ...
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3answers
260 views

If nature is inherently imprecise, how is it so easy for us to conceptualize mathematical certainties?

In modeling any real physical system, we are required to employ inductive reasoning. We can never be completely certain about the state or properties of any system or of any future observation we will ...
2
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1answer
66 views

Does Hume's skepticism about induction extend to his treatise?

Can we extend Hume's skeptical conclusions to the treatise itself? How far reaching is Hume's skepticism, and if it is all-encompassing, then what is (as he sees) the purpose of his work?
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3answers
76 views

Can the word “probably” be used in a proposition? (logic)

I'm interested in applying logic to day-to-day reasoning. The problem is that formal logic seems really restrictive to limit inductive arguments to be only universal ("all swans are white"). Few ...
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4answers
212 views

In what way does induction concern itself “entirely with justification”?

Karl Popper was "opposed to induction when it came to science", in the words of one of his reviewers, because Induction concerns itself entirely with justification – with establishing theories and ...
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5answers
618 views

How do I operate with philosophers if I reject deductive reasoning?

Deductive reasoning is the one that takes premises for granted. I never do it. Therefore I never do deductive reasoning. Well, enough jokes. It is safe to assume that deductive reasoning never should ...
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4answers
4k views

Propositions that are always true, but aren't tautologies?

Consider the following statements: "Snow melts during the day in the Sahara" "A human will die without oxygen" "Photons have no rest mass" These are statements that are always true, not because ...
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4answers
2k views

Inductive conclusions go beyond the content of the premise(s)

In my textbook A Concise Introduction to Logic, the author states this: In general, inductive arguments are such that the content of the conclusion is in some way to "go beyond" the content of the ...
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2answers
266 views

Can inductive arguments be made in first order logic and, if not, why not?

After reading a question by rus9384 Why is faulty generalization called an informal fallacy? I wondered whether induction can be part of any argument in first order logic (FOL). rus9384 symbolized ...
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2answers
131 views

Is this type of induction a problem?

I can understand how the verification of hypotheseses based on inductive reasoning can be problematic, and I understand that a lot of prominent figures in philosophy are in opposition to this (Popper, ...
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2answers
110 views

Is deduction based on induction?

I'm wondering if deduction is in the end based on induction. The problem of induction discovered by the Scottish philosopher David Hume is quite well known. On the other hand, it's commonly supported ...
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2answers
319 views

Based on evolution, do we arrive at deductive principles inductively?

If our knowledge of deductive principles is a result of evolution... doesn't this mean that we arrive at deductive principles inductively? Assuming deductive principles are beneficial for survival, ...
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1answer
178 views

What does Samir Okasha mean in this quote about converting invalid to valid argument?

I'm reading Samir Okasha's article "Does Hume’s argument against induction rest on a quantifier-shift fallacy?" and in page 240 there is this: Consider a typical inductive inference of the sort ...
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1answer
130 views

Popular exposition of the problem of induction

Is there a good survey article for lay readers (imagine an intelligent secondary-school pupil who may later do graduate work in philosophy but doesn't yet know much) of the philosophical difficulties ...
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1answer
36 views

Hume on Induction vs Education

Hume thinks that mental ideas are built upon repeated observations and habituation, namely by induction. As far as I know, the principal alternative to this view is given by Descartes, postulating ...
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2answers
223 views

Confusion between deductive and inductive reasoning definitions

The following arguments is always given as a classic example to deductive reasoning: All men are mortal. (First premise) Socrates is a man. (Second premise) Therefore, Socrates is mortal. ...
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1answer
79 views

Should we accept non-predictive inductive arguments based on cultural judgments?

Some inductive arguments that are taken seriously are based on observations about society/culture that cannot be objectively confirmed and do not produce any predictions. Does that make them less ...
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1answer
140 views

Help me understand Earman and Salmon's pragmatic vindication

"Hume showed convincingly that, if nature is uniform, inductive reasoning will work very well, whereas, if nature is not uniform, inductive reasoning will fail. This much is pretty easy to see. [Some ...
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1answer
100 views

What is an appropriate way to solve a Mill's method table, if it exists?

I'm being asked to determine the cause of a phenomenon using Mill's methods and a table of relevant factors. Below is the table: A B C D E Event * * * * * ...
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2answers
105 views

What skeptical arguments do not use induction?

What skeptical arguments do not use induction? I haven't yet found anything which says these do not exist, so doubt that they don't. But I'm still intrigued, as SEP says that [a] way to motivate ...
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1answer
44 views

Does induction presuppose simpler and more necessary inferences into the events in question, and if so, does this render the Humean analysis wounded?

Induction here is considered in light of the modern view, which is the practice of inferring from particulars to generals. Hume believes that such inference is very problematic since it holds two ...
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0answers
24 views

Inductive reasoning and probability: probability of the conclusion versus probability of the supporting relation?

It is often admitted that inductive reasoning has something to do with probability. While in a ( valid) deduction the premises necessarily imply the conclusion, in an inductive reasoning the premises ...
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1answer
58 views

Contemporary problem of induction

What is the contemporary opinion on the problem of induction? It seems that no justification can be given, according to the SEP and an Oxford lecturer. It seems that the SEP does not provide any ...
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33 views

Can the conclusion of an inductive argument be that there is only one exception to the list of evidentiary claims?

Can this be an example of an inductive argument? Premise 1: Country A rejected idea Z. Premise 2: Country B rejected idea Z. Premise 3: Country C rejected idea Z. Premise 4: Country D rejected ...
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0answers
65 views

Swinburne's solution to Grue

In the new riddle of induction, Swinburne proposes the idea that there is a genuine distinction to be made between the predicate 'green' and the predicate 'grue' in that 'green' is a qualitative ...
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93 views

How does Hume justify his account of the origin of causation to a general sense?

Hume's account of causation explains why we think specific things have causes and explains them in terms of their constant connection in our minds such that we associate them by "habit". Hume brings ...
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0answers
84 views

Does reliabilism fall to the problem of induction?

From what I've gathered, reliabilism states that epistemic justification occurs when someone forms a belief via truth-conducive methods. However, doesn't this fall to the problem of induction? Isn't ...
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0answers
49 views

What sort of knowledge has been retained through theory change?

The wikipedia article on the PMI says When we develop a new theory, the central ideas of the old one usually become refuted. Parts of the old theory, however, we carry over to the new one This ...
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1answer
44 views

Clarification regarding “Hume's argument against the justifiability of induction”

This is my quiz problem, in particular on "Hume's argument against the justifiability of induction". I was supposed to do True and False. That every inference is either inductive or deductive. That ...
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214 views

Is this inductive or deductive?

The fact that we know we have a great great grandfather. Is the reasoning we use for this inductive or deductive?
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1answer
49 views

Reasoning for Inductive inference?

Just out of curiosity, if I should replace the deductive inference related questions to inductive inference, then which are true? Inductive inferences rearrange current knowledge in such a way that ...
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283 views

Induction and prejudice

Is there any difference between prejudice and inductive reasoning (not mathematical induction)? If so, what is the difference?
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1answer
155 views

Is logic based on uncertainty the fundamental logic?

Most formal logics are based on certainty, but certainty is only one probability among others, so a logic based on uncertainty and probability should be considered as the fundamental logic from which ...
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38 views

Clarifications on 1) Modus Ponens, 2) Modus Tollens, 3) Inductive, 4) Incomplete based on examples

My second lecture on Hypothetico-Deductive methods (based on Popper's falsification theory). In the class, we were given the following examples. We had to classify which examples belong to 1) Modus ...
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87 views

Is symbolic regression Popperian or inductivist?

This has been on my mind for a few days. I'd love a criticism of my arguments outlined here: https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/fallible-ideas/9bcC5WN6bLs. I'll re-issue them here: While ...