Questions tagged [introduction-to-philosophy]

Used when an inquisitor or question posed might occur at the undergraduate or lower level of institutional philosophical pedagogy. Certain basic ideas about metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology often occur to adults without philosophical education. Common recurring introductory questions ask after answers commonly satisfied by introductory articles, and sometimes such entries are themselves unclear and overly complicated.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
0 votes
1 answer
73 views

Reasoning and Randomness

What is the relation between reasoning and randomness or more specifically finding any relation between logic and stochastic processes? Why does it work so well, I wonder. For instance, prices in ...
user avatar
  • 321
2 votes
4 answers
157 views

If we simulate a universe just like ours, is there any experiment simulated life could do to verify it is being simulated?

Akin to Einstein's principle of equivalence where the observer cannot tell if he or she is either in free fall or being accelerated (in a small enough region of spacetime); I'm wondering the same ...
user avatar
  • 137
3 votes
7 answers
473 views

What is logic, and can logic itself be true or false?

In my understanding, logic is the process by which we can determine whether a conclusion is true or false, starting from a bunch of premises. What kinds of logic are there, then, and what would it ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
42 views

Difference between fallacies and biases

What is the basic difference between biases, such as confirmation bias, anchoring bias, etc., and fallacies such as argumentum ad antiquitatem, argumentum ad hominem, argumentum ad ignorantiam, etc.? ...
user avatar
  • 321
0 votes
1 answer
95 views

Can we have non-subjective diagnosis of mental illnesses? [closed]

Mental illness or mental health is not like physical medicine. With a disease of the body, one can culture an agar plate to determine there's a bacterium associated with symptoms, or can use other ...
user avatar
5 votes
6 answers
492 views

What is the relationship between algorithms and logic?

Is an algorithm (cooking a dish, Grover's/Shor algorithm, etc.) a form of deductive reasoning or inductive reasoning, and if not what exactly is the relationship between an alogorithm and logic?
user avatar
  • 321
8 votes
16 answers
3k views

Can we doubt all knowledge?

Can we doubt all knowledge from all sources (perception, reports, and reason)? Regarding doubting reason, reason can't be proven, it is preceived and judged instantly by our logic, but what if our ...
user avatar
  • 288
4 votes
9 answers
3k views

Does absence of evidence mean evidence of absence?

I've often heard a phrase used in argumentation, but I'm not sure what it means. Does absence of evidence mean evidence of absence in philosophy?
user avatar
  • 321
4 votes
9 answers
4k views

Certainty is not possible in science

So I have formulated a set of arguments to argue certainty is not possible in science. Did I make an illogical argument here or like is there anything amiss in my argument? Opinion: Science can reach ...
user avatar
5 votes
7 answers
2k views

Are "aesthetic experiences" limited to art and music?

I was wondering whether philosophers consider aesthetic experiences to be something that permeate through a range of day to day experiences or if they're limited to art. For example, can learning/...
user avatar
  • 361
17 votes
7 answers
4k views

What type of fallacy is it when people in undeveloped countries claim something it's true, because developed countries do it?

A fallacy that we hear a lot here in undeveloped countries, and which is so deeply annoying, it's that something is true because the developed countries do it. It's particularly annoying because many ...
user avatar
  • 297
2 votes
3 answers
92 views

More about the relations between properties of parts and their wholes?

Hi I'm trying to discover any metaphysical necessities that connect the properties of a whole and the properties of its parts. I know the properties of the whole can be different than the properties ...
user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
81 views

A word that encapsulates the strongest aspects of "model" and "theory" (and perhaps "hypothesis")?

I saw What is the difference between a "model" and a "theory"?, where it says, like Wikipedia says, that a scientific theory is a well-tested and thoroughly researched explanation ...
user avatar
  • 207
1 vote
1 answer
63 views

Question about fundamental philosophical standpoints

I just started learning Philosophy. One of my colleagues said that there are 4 fundamental philosophical standpoints: Atheism Agnosticism Deism Theism But when I tried to read/search about the ...
user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
79 views

Proper name for "affirming the common ground" fallacy / rhetorical technique?

I'm trying to find the name for this form—I don't know if it'd rightly be called a "fallacy", or just a "rhetorical technique"—where you affirm or reiterate non-disputed premises ...
user avatar
0 votes
5 answers
90 views

Is the quality more fundamental than the quantity? [closed]

When we talk about quantitative and qualitative data, which kind is more fundamental? For example, when someone measures the volume of a given body, this results in a quantitative measure. However, ...
user avatar
  • 117
0 votes
2 answers
119 views

What methods have been proposed to identify sentience in an AI?

It is in the news that google has suspended a software engineer for violating confidentiality policies after sought "outside consultation" over concerns the AI he was working on is sentient. ...
user avatar
  • 195
2 votes
2 answers
86 views

Paradox of Plurality as a better idea

If X is in a zone where there is a rule that while a person has right to have/follow any opinion/view point but is REQUIRED (MANDATORY) to respect (and accept) plurality of opinions as a condition to ...
user avatar
6 votes
5 answers
1k views

On the connection between science and reality

My question is basically targetting various sciences that we use to understnad the real world and how we form laws in them. For example, in physics, we first see sometthing in the real world. Let it ...
user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
1k views

Is this spreading a lie considered lying?

So if person A is fed false information by person B, and person A goes on to tell this information to person C in the best way possible in the exact way they heard it are they lying? Person A would be ...
user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
80 views

Are people naturally cooperative or selfish?

Machiavelli's The Prince has a rather low view of humanity. He paints humans as fickle, and ready to turn in desperate moments. This may be attributed to the fact that he was in exile and lived in a ...
user avatar
  • 101
3 votes
2 answers
139 views

Are there things that don't exist?

This question is tripping me up. My working definition of exists is "affecting something/someone" Consider the following frame of reference: My bedroom I now have two categories. Things that ...
user avatar
15 votes
16 answers
7k views

Why can't numbers be 'used up'?

I was speaking with a young student who has been learning about addition and subtraction (essentially functions, but he doesn't know that yet) with the idea of a 'number machine' and he could not ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
102 views

Is there a line between philosophy which problems are solvable by "pure thought" and which aren't?

It seems to me like a lot of arguments in philosophy are aided by insights of science, math, etc. For example, the relation between evolution and morals or Kant and geometry (and later non-Euclidian ...
user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
83 views

Is the term "freedom" sometimes used by those who govern a nation into a poor state of affairs for the people?

Cuba is a socialist regime with no "freedom" accordingly to many people. In Cuba there is a very low crime rate, most of the country is safe. El Salvador is a capitalist country with very ...
user avatar
4 votes
2 answers
107 views

Gradations of epistemological categories

For my philosophy discussion group, I am looking for real life examples that would fit the above illustration. What would be some good examples? Data is a collection of facts, while information puts ...
user avatar
  • 395
3 votes
4 answers
138 views

Scrutiny on the definition of the Turing Machine?

Wiki states: A Turing machine is a mathematical model of computation describing an abstract machine that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Has this intuitive ...
user avatar
12 votes
11 answers
4k views

Why is a set with one element distinct from the element itself?

Why do we consider a set which is treated for all intents and purposes as a 'collection' with one element as being different from the element itself? In this 'collection' there is one element, and ...
user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
113 views

Are mathematical objects a type according to type-theory?

I've been thinking about mathematical objects as a metaphysical trope, and the idea of them existing as a type has a few issues for me. Mainly the response to this question is similar to what I've ...
user avatar
3 votes
3 answers
310 views

How do we answer the question of "what is it"?

What is an electron? How do we answer such questions? If we try to explain it in more fundamental terms, we have to ask what is that and keeps going. So, my question is should we take things like ...
user avatar
  • 130
3 votes
2 answers
132 views

Can metaphysics ever find real truth?

I'm aware, on a conceptual level, of what metaphysics is, but have no actual knowledge of the subject. Despite that, I've recently been better acquainted with the study, and it seems like something I ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
90 views

Gods from the perspective of animals

"And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
119 views

What is the difference between statement and premise?

What are the differences between a Statement and a Premise? I wonder if they are same or not? Any counterexample where a statement is not a premise?
user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
176 views

Introduction to Heidegger

I have not read anything of Martin Heidegger and I am interested in starting. I understand that "Being and Time" can be very difficult, so what would be a good place to start? (including ...
user avatar
  • 384
3 votes
4 answers
640 views

Does philosophical knowledge always conflict with religion?

What part of philosophy supports religion ? Or is religion itself its own philosophy ?
user avatar