Questions tagged [introduction-to-philosophy]

Used when an inquisitor or question posed might occur at the undergraduate or lower level of institutional philosophical pedagogy. Certain basic ideas about metaphysics, ontology, and epistemology often occur to adults without philosophical education. Common recurring introductory questions ask after answers commonly satisfied by introductory articles, and sometimes such entries are themselves unclear and overly complicated.

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How to prove the world is real, and one isn’t just hallucinating everything? [duplicate]

I'm not asking whether other minds are real or not, I'm asking whether the whole shebang is "real". Google Gemini says it's impossible to know/prove it, and basically says to "move on&...
Artem S. Tashkinov's user avatar
5 votes
1 answer
73 views

Does submitting in PhilArchive affect submission in journals?

I wanted to submit a paper to PhilArchive (an open-access e-print archive in philosophy). If I want to submit this paper to a journal afterwards, does this prior submission to PhilArchive affect the ...
user466441's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
79 views

What terminology distinguishes questions that define goals from those that accomplish them?

I will soon give a technical talk in which I want to stress the importance of asking the right questions. I propose to use a philosophical analogy; comparing the questions "How do I live a good ...
Philip Roe's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
169 views

What happens when you deny an axiom? [closed]

There is no proof that the axiom is true. There is no proof by “Proof by contradiction”. That means that even if you deny the axiom, there will be no contradiction. And if a contradiction is created ...
Display name's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
58 views

Can you help me with the inference: if ¬( P & ¬Q ) and Q, then P

I'm taking my classes of symbolic logic, so my question is a bit naïve, but: If this expression is correct: ¬( P & ¬Q), P then Q. Why not the following is not: ¬( P & ¬Q), Q then P. Thank you.
Danyel 80be's user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
524 views

Can this be an example of sophism?

Foreword: 0 is considered an even number, but if 0 would be an even number, then 0 apples would count an even number of apples. Example: 3 apples [🍏🍏🍏] 2 apples [🍏🍏 ] 1 apple [🍏 ] ...
user avatar
0 votes
3 answers
189 views

What is a false counterpart of tautology called?

A tautology is a statement which is always true. What is the name for a statement which is always false? Is it correct that a statement is either tautology, the false counterpart of tautology, or ...
Tim's user avatar
  • 489
4 votes
3 answers
269 views

Confused On The Definition Of A Proposition

One definition I encountered was something that is either true or false. (for example, I ate vegetables yesterday is a proposition). Another definition I encountered is the meaning of a sentence (for ...
HelpMePlease's user avatar
7 votes
16 answers
4k views

Why should I seek to determine the ultimate nature of reality (i.e. whether God exists or not)?

Here is my argument: Until recently, I considered the pursuit (and eventual determination) of the ultimate nature of reality to be one of the most (if not the most) important goals for me. This is ...
tryingtobeastoic's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
108 views

What does "p is true for S at t" mean?

In Alvin Goldman's article "What Is Justified Belief", what does "p is true for S at t" mean? where p is a proposition, S is a person and t is time. More specifically, how is it ...
Charles's user avatar
  • 19
0 votes
4 answers
184 views

The nature of illogic

For many years, it deluded my mind. Someone told me there has to be more to life than logic. Through many years of analysis. I came to the conclusion that, it is impossible to understand illogical ...
Danish A. Y.'s user avatar
4 votes
4 answers
459 views

Why is it so hard to give a good definition of philosophy?

I have never seen an adequate definition of philosophy. It seems like a "family-resemblance" concept to me, to borrow Wittgenstein's famous phrase. It is easy to give definitions of, say, ...
user107952's user avatar
  • 6,806
5 votes
10 answers
3k views

Is there a difference between believing something and behaving as if it were true?

To clarify, I mean without deception. In other words, if something seems plausible to me, and I decide to act on it as though it were true while recognizing that I could be mistaken, do I believe it? ...
Steven Harder's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
80 views

How to write a philosophical work? As a beginner

How does one identify the points for discussion in that paper? And how do I make a skeleton paper work of the topic to present infront of your mentor? What is the structure of a philosophical paper? ...
Ankita Nayak's user avatar
7 votes
11 answers
4k views

Are there questions that science can't answer, but philosophy can?

Are there questions that science can't answer, but philosophy can? I can't think of any such questions. But, perhaps there are such questions. I would like some examples. Note, such questions have to ...
user107952's user avatar
  • 6,806
2 votes
4 answers
402 views

Does philosophy consist in defining the being of each thing?

I have been pondering the question of what philosophy is and what it aims to achieve. One idea that came to mind is that philosophy might consist in defining the being of each thing. In other words, ...
Olandelie's user avatar
  • 251
5 votes
6 answers
838 views

Epistemic circularity and skepticism about reason

Disclaimer: I'm not a philosopher and I'm not a native speaker, so apologies if my question is somehow flawed as a result. I'm happy to clarify anything that is unclear. So here it is: Reason's own ...
Numa's user avatar
  • 109
5 votes
12 answers
973 views

Resources for self-teaching philosophy

I'm a mathematician who has taken an interest in philosophy in the past few years. I want to start with the 17th-century rationalists (mainly Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz) and move forward in time ...
hamath's user avatar
  • 159
2 votes
1 answer
46 views

Looking for the name of Philsopher or Philosophy/Book/Thesis from around Enlightnement period about human inclicnation to tribalism

Im not sure what im looking for exactly but having read it in the past from "history of philosophy" (coppleston type series of books) where it was discussing a type of philosopher or ...
getting faster's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
226 views

Is "Why do we live?" a philosophical question?

After posting a question akin to "Why do we live?" in the r/AskPhilosophy subreddit its moderators got it removed, providing as motivation "All questions must be about philosophy". ...
Andrea Nerla's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
2k views

Logical Analysis of Argument

Andrew: I think this country needs more scientists. Britney: But if everyone were scientists, then we won't have any artists! And without artists, we might as well all be robots. Is Britney's argument ...
Geyooo Oghey's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
122 views

Top-down bottom-up

I have seem the terms top-down bottom-up approach,top-down bottom-up models,top-down bottom-up causation in many papers. I am bit confused.Are they really same or how can we define them ?
quanity's user avatar
  • 1,333
4 votes
3 answers
203 views

Are the body parts of living beings, considered living beings?

Consider a living being, for example, us humans. The body of this living being is composed of various components such as heart, brain, kidney, etc. Now the question is whether these components ...
user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
216 views

How can nature without self-awareness and intelligence create living beings with self-awareness and intelligence?

Look at the nature around you. Nature does not have intelligence and self-awareness, but it has created living beings with intelligence and self-awareness (an example of which is us humans). ...
user avatar
4 votes
4 answers
235 views

Is it possible to know what you don't know?

Is it possible in any logical system to know what one doesn't know literally. I don't mean the daily usage of the phrase like "Sam doesn't know physics", where you are just ignorant about ...
Siddharth Chakravarty's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
70 views

What's the difference between analytic and synthetic AND implicit/explicit?

The statement 'a bachelor is an unmarried man' is an implicit and analytic statement. What is the difference between implicit/explicity and analytic/synthetic? Is there even a difference?
sket's user avatar
  • 321
2 votes
6 answers
234 views

Which kinds of philosophical arguments are more than subjective opinions? [closed]

"There is nothing so absurd but some philosopher has said it" - Cicero. Is it possible to express opinions about other opinions, without expressing oneself philosophically? For example, if I ...
Roger's user avatar
  • 39
1 vote
2 answers
88 views

What does it mean "to provide semantics" in the context of formal logic?

When reading some SEP articles, this is a phrase I commonly came across, "this provides a semantics for this logic". But what does it mean?
tryst with freedom's user avatar
6 votes
8 answers
2k views

Is all change movement?

Is there a change in the universe that cannot be reduced to movement? One counter-example should be enough. :) Heat is a type of change that was once thought to be qualitative, but is now realized to ...
Olle Härstedt's user avatar
14 votes
9 answers
4k views

Should I trust my own thoughts when studying philosophy?

I sometimes find myself disagreeing with Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy or other seasoned philosophers. However, I am scared to trust my own thoughts lest my ideas are erroneous. I do not know ...
tryingtobeastoic's user avatar
4 votes
4 answers
3k views

How many instances of 1 are there in the expression "1+1"?

Is it just two marks/numerals representing a singular number 1, or are they actually two instances of 1? And what about in a set with repetition such as {1, 1, 2, 3}? And if these are actually ...
csp's user avatar
  • 390
3 votes
2 answers
265 views

What would constitute as justification?

Follow up to this post. The question here is quite short, what would constitute as justification in regards to justified belief theory? Seems something a bit vague to me. My main motivation to this ...
tryst with freedom's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
65 views

Does nominalism about kinds/universals entail eliminativism/nihilism about ordinary objects?

If one holds a nominalist or conventionalist view of universals or kind, then do they believe that there are ordinary objects?
Craigory 's user avatar
1 vote
5 answers
236 views

Is there something a little artificial about 'miracles'?

A miracle is something that is currently inexplicable by the laws of nature: statues crying blood; the resurrection of the dead; turning water into wine; etc.. Suppose I can accurately guess the ...
user avatar
0 votes
2 answers
91 views

Why do people speak as though "all" does not imply "some"? [closed]

Suppose someone asks whether some of the people in a classroom are over 20 years old, and then someone says, "No, all of the people are". Why would they say that? Why can't they say ...
user107952's user avatar
  • 6,806
6 votes
8 answers
2k views

The location of a single object in empty space

Is it correct to assume that if there is only one object in the void (really empty void), then its location (the answer to the question “where” this object is) cannot be established? You need at least ...
ggk hj's user avatar
  • 121
8 votes
5 answers
4k views

How much suffering is needed for an overall happy life?

Premise: I have not studied Philosophy, and maybe I am out of context. My question arises from two simple considerations: Empirically, there seems to be no true happiness without some suffering (...
rod's user avatar
  • 249
4 votes
2 answers
857 views

What are the arguments for pornography?

It is believed that pornography "violates" the humanity of those involved; that sexually explicit materials reduce people to objects or bodies used primarily for the sexual gratification of ...
ActualCry's user avatar
  • 1,989
0 votes
1 answer
88 views

Is philosophy any different from emotional reasoning? [closed]

Emotional reasoning is considered a flawed form of reasoning because you essentially believe in something because you feel it to be true. But isn’t this the case for any question in philosophy? For ...
user avatar
1 vote
6 answers
238 views

Can circular reasoning be logical, and can it provide support for the Bible?

Circular reasoning is a type of logical fallacy where the premise is used to prove the conclusion. A basis example would be: This historical movie is creditable. Why? Because it says so. In this ...
Hannah's user avatar
  • 19
0 votes
4 answers
282 views

Is all of philosophy unfalsifiable?

How do you know you’re wrong about anything? Without having to use underlying philosophical theories that themselves involve axioms that can’t be proved, how is someone proven wrong about quite ...
user avatar
23 votes
11 answers
5k views

Isn't every theory or model wrong?

I'm currently in class 12 and I was about different models of atoms in my school chemistry book and there were like 3 or 4 atomic models Rutherford's model, Thompson's model , Bohr's model then ...
Shardul's user avatar
  • 387
2 votes
2 answers
145 views

How do humans generalize abstract concepts from concrete objects?

To elaborate, I would like to take the definition of square as example, the square is shape with four equal sides and either two sides form a 90 degrees angle, while we can not directly see it. What ...
Milligan's user avatar
1 vote
4 answers
187 views

Can a case for veganism be made from a moral relativist perspective?

Can veganism be defended against moral relativist beliefs, assuming moral relativism is correct? I might be missing something here but it seems like veganism almost always requires a non-relativist ...
OldAccount2005's user avatar
1 vote
2 answers
69 views

Are choices that lead to harm if required by duty or executed with consent still ethical?

If people carried out actions which could potentially harm others, and others consented to the person carrying out the action, is carrying out such an action still ethical? If I were to judge this ...
user1039203's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
132 views

An introductory book on philosophy of language and logic?

I tried self teaching philosophy of language, logic, modal logic but I am lost as a headless chicken. Can anyone help me please? I have a full time job, but I can take an hour everyday and learn a bit....
Anaamika's user avatar
2 votes
4 answers
542 views

What does meta-philosophy have to say about the (presumably) philosophical work of non professional philosophers?

This question is prompted by an interesting comment discussion in a question I previously asked. Whereas nobody without proper mathematical training would attempt nowadays to do mathematics, it seems ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
63 views

Books similar in nature to Logic and Theism by Jordan Sobel?

I've recently been reading "Logic and Theism" by Jordan Sobel and have found it to be fascinating. The two primary things I like about it are: The book primarily focuses on analyzing the ...
debord's user avatar
  • 11
2 votes
6 answers
2k views

Does philosophy rely on intuitions? If so, does this mean all of philosophy is nothing more than hunches?

Does philosophy rely on intuitions? If so, and all of philosophy comes down to intuition, how can one person be deemed to be more rational than other? In this world, most would agree that you cannot ...
user avatar
0 votes
4 answers
103 views

(philosophy of law) how broadly can statutes be interpreted by courts? [closed]

In constitutions and legal systems like that of America , Australia and India (and other states with separation of powers), if a statute has more than one possible interpretation, then can and should ...
OldAccount2005's user avatar