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Questions tagged [kant]

Immanuel Kant was a German Enlightenment philosopher.

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Utilitarian Morality vs Kantian Morality

Does Utilitarian or Kantian Morality Approve : 1) Capital Punishment 2) Use of torture in interrogation of known terrorists
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Can a Kantian bluff in poker?

Kantians aren't allowed to lie---if it were a universal law of nature that everyone lied all the time, no communication would be possible at all, no words would have meaning, and lying itself would ...
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Is Kant's postulate of the existence of God a metaethical assumption?

Also, I would like to get some bibliographical reference about Kantian metaethics.
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How does Kant actually resolve the free will / empirical causality contradiction? [duplicate]

I'm reading through the Critique of Pure Reason and I'm stuck on the section Resolution of the cosmological idea of the totality of the derivation of occurrences in the world from their causes and ...
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What was the popular moral philosophy at the time when Kant lived?

On Wikipedia it is said: In Section II, Kant starts from scratch and attempts to move from popular moral philosophy to a metaphysics of morals. Therefore, there was some kind of popular moral ...
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Why didn't Kant end up in anarchy?

Let us assume the proposition: one might take leader role. Then we apply universalization: if everyone takes leader role, no one is the leader. Thus, we proved that taking leader role is useless ...
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We may say that Sartre inverts Kant’s moral philosophy. What does Sartre share with Kant, and how does he overturn some of his thinking?

Compare and contrast Kant and Sartre. We may say that Sartre inverts Kant’s moral philosophy. What does Sartre share with Kant, and how does he overturn some of his thinking?
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What are some secondary texts, in the form of online articles, to read about Kant's Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics?

What are some secondary texts, in the form of online articles, to read about Kant's Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics before I jump into the text and to ease myself into understanding it? It ...
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What would Utilitarian and Kantian say or react to this case?

Delores Heston, age 22 and unmarried, was severely injured in an automobile accident. She was taken to the plaintiff hospital where it was determined that she would expire unless operated upon for a ...
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Applying the Mere Means principle

I am trying to understand Kant's Second Categorical Imperative: Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never merely as a means to an ...
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What did Kant mean by the “fountain of reason” in the Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics?

What did Kant mean by the "fountain of reason?" " … They must wait till those who endeavor to draw from the fountain of reason itself have completed their work … " — Kant, Immanuel. Prolegomena to ...
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How can Kantianism prove the existence of perfect duties?

I heard about Kant's reasoning that lying that you return money or about the leads to contradiction in conception. But how could he even prove that lying under any circumstances leads to ...
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What are four ways in which Kant 's categories are different from Aristotle's?

What are the differences between Kant's Categories and Aristotle's?
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Would Robin Hood be ethical in Kantian ethics?

In order for an action to have moral worth, it must be done from the motive of duty. Would Robin Hood be ethical, assuming that he has no other intent only acted out of the duty to help others, ...
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why did Kant say the only truly “good” thing in this world “without exception” is a “good will”?

why did Kant say the only truly “good” thing in this world “without exception”? if I understand him correctly, which I very well may not, I believe he states that good will is the only truly good ...
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What would it mean for morality not to be a consequence of rationality?

How would one manage to arrive at this morality, or when to apply it without reason? Some might say we directly experience morality, but this is inconsistent with the different different moral ...
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Kant's argument for experience of outer things

Have I got this right? I have empirical consciousness of my existence a determination such as this presupposes ‘something permanent in perception’ All that I inwardly intuit is my series of ...
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Question about absoluteness

If you say: "Nothing is absolute, everything is relative". Then you make an absolute statement. How can this be?
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Was Kant a factor in forming Gauss's abstract view of mathematical objects?

Gauss argued for philosophical issues important to the development of mathematics, such as the identity of complex numbers, among others. I wonder what philosophical currents influenced his thinking ...
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'reason for speculative purposes finds the road of natural necessity […], yet for practical purposes'

Secondary Source: What's It All About? (2007 1 ed.) p. 120 Middle. Primary Source: Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals, Section 3, ON THE EXTREME BOUNDARY OF ALL PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY ...
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Why is Kant's Groundwork so much more popular than his other ethical works?

Kant has three main works on ethics: the Groundwork, the second Critique, and the Metaphysics of Morals, and some important short essays: "What is enlightenment?", "Toward perpetual peace", and "...
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Kant and the Categorical Imperatives

Did Immanuel Kant intend for the Categorical Imperatives to be used together, or separately, when trying to determine an actions ethicality or morality If you answer yes, individually, then how does ...
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Why were Kant's categories used in the mathematical category theory?

I am curious exactly how mathematical categories were inspired by Kant's categories. The SEP article on category theory says: In order to give a general definition of the [natural transformation], ...
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Why did Kant say space and time do not exist independent of us?

As far as I know, Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) believed that space and time do not exist objectively, independent of us, and that they are added by our minds to our perceptions. I am eager to know what ...
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Is there anything left in contemporary epistemology and science from the German Idealism?

Kant, Reinhold, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel.. Is there anything left from the Kantian movement today in the thoughts of knowledge and nature? The question is focused especially after Popper essentially "...
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By its definition, is it possible the thing-in-itself is also a phenomenon?

The transcendental philosophy seperate famously seperate between the thing-as-itself and the phenomenon the derives from it, by vague comparison, similar to Plato's ideas. My question is, is it ...
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a priori and a posteriori

Where can I find a systematic review of the concept a priori and a posteriori and investigations on their proper distinction? Classical texts are prefered but Kant, Aristotle are excluded. Actually ...
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Does the Evolution Theory contradict Kant's Metaphysics?

I recently asked a series of questions about ET, and this is one of them :) Intuitively, it seems to me that ET is supposed to contradict Kant's (or more generally, the German Idealism's) Metaphysics ...
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Schelling: from where, or how exactly does the a priori ideas come?

I'm reading Schelling's System of Transcendental Idealism, and in the end of the 3rd part (the end of the theoretical philosophy) schelling disproves the idea that a priori ideas are inherent in us ...
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Have anyone found a good solution to Kant's dualistic approach to consciousness?

Kant, in his studies of transcendental idealism, made the "illogical gap" between theoretical philosophy and practical philosophy, at the end of theoretical study, by requiring the contemplation of ...
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why is it impossible to predict or foresee the future but if can what is the closest method to do so

I threw a question wondered in my head for sometimes which I cannot prove specifically. The titled question I guess is every where every time and even across the culture. to be detailed, In some ...
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What are some cases that involve moral themes?

I am searching for a specific case that interests me, where I can discuss Kantian ethics, Utilitarianism (Mill and Bentham), and Aristotle's Virtue Ethics. So far, the cases I have come across on the ...
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Is the statement “I exist” an example of an analaytic a posteriori statement?

"I exist" is not synthetic since the concept of "exist" is contained int he predicate "I". "I exist" is not a priori since it requires my experience of I to be known. The fact that "I exist" is not ...
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What are some examples of categorical imperatives/universalizable maxims relevant to modern ethics?

I know this question has been widely asked, and that the answer may not be as straightforward as the question, which is partly why I'm asking. It's been a long time since I sat in a philosophy class, ...
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A good explanation for why failing Kant's categorical imperative = morally wrong action?

More precisely, can someone provide a relatively intuitive explanation or justification for why failing the categorical imperative test should be indicative of an action which is morally wrong? I'm ...
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How would a Utilitarian and a Kantian solve this thought experiment?

In this thought experiment, you are a doctor, and you work on a roadside hospital. Only you and another doctor are working in the hospital, and a woman who tried to commit suicide arrives at the ...
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Utilitarianism or Kantianism

Which of these two theories is more accepted or has more support in the field of ethics? It seems that Kantian ethics holds too stringent of rules and the the Universal Law of Formulation is ...
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What is the role of the transcendental unity of apperception for the possibility of the perception of objects according to Kant?

Early in the B Deduction, Kant says: "The I think must be able to accompany all my representations; for otherwise something would be represented in me that could not be thought at all, which is as ...
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Kant — What does it mean to treat someone merely as a means?

Seems like circumventing someone's rational agency, their ability to choose their own end is what it means to treat someone merely as a means. But putting people in prison is circumventing their ...
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What are the similarities/differences between how Kant thinks 'noumenon' limits understanding compared to C.S. Peirce?

Kant stated in Critique of Pure Reason, pg. 273: What our understanding acquires through this concept of a noumenon, is a negative extension; that is to say, understanding is not limited through ...
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Kant's Ethics: Inclination mutually exclusive to acting from duty?

I'm reading through the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals Section 1 and would like some confirmation on the topic in the title. From what I read it seems that one can still act from duty despite ...
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Did Kant believe that all the planets in the solar system are inhabited?

I see occasional references to this claim: Immanuel Kant believed that all the planets in the solar system are inhabited. What's more, that he had a proof! I have carefully checked my dog-eared copy ...
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According to Kant, Is it ethical to prevent someone acting unethically against ones self?

My intuition seems to say yes, however I'm not quite sure how to go about reasoning about this. I'm particularly interested in evaluating this using the first and second categorical imperative. I ...
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Is Kant's ethical theory adequate to the complexities of universalisation?

Kant argues that one should only act according to those principles which can be universalised. However human actions are often complex and motivated by multi-layered reasonings. They can rarely be ...
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Kant's “Perpetual Peace” and separation of powers

Kant's "Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch" states that democracy is a despotic form of government, because the laws are made and executed by the same power. This was published in 1795, after ...
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eleemosynary duties

(For context, last year I had someone close to me die. He was a very sentimental person, with certain valuables to which he was very attached. He specified certain property to be liquidated in a ...
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What is Nietzsche's source of immediate knowledge in Beyond Good and Evil?

In Beyond Good and Evil, Section 16, Nietzsche uses "immediate certainties" in quotation marks. Who and from where is Nietzsche quoting this, or is he using the quotations marks to speak ironically? ...
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Kant's Transcendental Apperception and al-`Ilm al-Huduri

What is transcendental apperception in Kant's Philosophy? Is it an instance of knowledge-by-presence (al-Ilm al-Huduri) in Islamic philosophy (especially Mulla Sadra's al-Hikmah al-Mutaaliyyah)?
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For Husserl, how can we know things in themselves?

I don't quite understand the nature of "going back to things themselves". How does Husserl break away from Kant?
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Can we fit non-euclidean geometry into Kant's theory?

If one assumes that the geometry of pure intuition is something other than Euclidean, how does that damage anything in the Critique? I mean can we still have a grasp of space-time both as an ...